Full Name: William Alves de Oliveira. Date of Birth: Dec 7, Place of Birth: Juiz de Fora Brazil. Age: Height: 1,82 m. Nationality: Brazil. Position: Forward . Zum Beispiel im englischen Städtchen Stratford des Jahres , wo sich der jährige William Shakespeare mit Lateinunterricht herumschlagen muss. William ist ein Vorname normannischen Ursprungs und die englische Form des männlichen Vornamens Wilhelm. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Varianten.
Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. At age 49 around , he appears to have retired to Stratford, where he died three years later. Shakespeare produced most of his known works between and Until about , he wrote mainly tragedies , among them Hamlet , Othello , King Lear , and Macbeth , all considered to be among the finest works in the English language.
His plays remain popular and are studied, performed, and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world.
William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare , an alderman and a successful glover glove-maker originally from Snitterfield , and Mary Arden , the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer.
Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar: At the age of 18, Shakespeare married year-old Anne Hathaway.
The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in Shakespeare is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him.
It is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by As used here, Johannes Factotum "Jack of all trades" refers to a second-rate tinkerer with the work of others, rather than the more common "universal genius".
In , a partnership of members of the company built their own theatre on the south bank of the River Thames , which they named the Globe.
In , the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre. Throughout his career, Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford.
In , the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St. Rowe was the first biographer to record the tradition, repeated by Johnson , that Shakespeare retired to Stratford "some years before his death".
Retirement from all work was uncommon at that time. Shakespeare died on 23 April , at the age of No extant contemporary source explains how or why he died.
Half a century later, John Ward , the vicar of Stratford, wrote in his notebook: Of the tributes from fellow authors, one refers to his relatively sudden death: He was survived by his wife and two daughters.
Thomas was ordered by the church court to do public penance, which would have caused much shame and embarrassment for the Shakespeare family.
Shakespeare bequeathed the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna  under stipulations that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body".
Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death. Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare, To digg the dvst encloased heare.
Bleste be man spares thes stones, And cvrst be he moves my bones. Some time before , a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing.
Its plaque compares him to Nestor , Socrates , and Virgil. Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career.
Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition.
The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI , written in the early s during a vogue for historical drama.
His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work.
According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play-offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty".
In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.
It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays. The title page of the edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes.
In Cymbeline , for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: The ghosts fall on their knees. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time.
Alfred Pollard termed some of the pre versions as " bad quartos " because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory.
In the case of King Lear , however, while most modern editions do conflate them, the folio version is so different from the quarto that the Oxford Shakespeare prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion.
In and , when the theatres were closed because of plague , Shakespeare published two narrative poems on sexual themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece.
He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. In Venus and Adonis , an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus ; while in The Rape of Lucrece , the virtuous wife Lucrece is raped by the lustful Tarquin.
Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects. Scholars are not certain when each of the sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership.
It remains unclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial "I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare himself, though Wordsworth believed that with the sonnets "Shakespeare unlocked his heart".
The edition was dedicated to a "Mr. It is not known whether this was written by Shakespeare himself or by the publisher, Thomas Thorpe , whose initials appear at the foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr.
He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama. The grand speeches in Titus Andronicus , in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in The Two Gentlemen of Verona has been described as stilted.
However, Shakespeare soon began to adapt the traditional styles to his own purposes. The opening soliloquy of Richard III has its roots in the self-declaration of Vice in medieval drama.
Shakespeare combined the two throughout his career, with Romeo and Juliet perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles.
He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself. In practice, this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable.
The blank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his later ones. It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to start, pause, and finish at the end of lines , with the risk of monotony.
This technique releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as Julius Caesar and Hamlet. Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting That would not let me sleep.
Methought I lay Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. After Hamlet , Shakespeare varied his poetic style further, particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies.
The literary critic A. Bradley described this style as "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, less regular, not seldom twisted or elliptical".
These included run-on lines , irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structure and length. The listener is challenged to complete the sense.
Shakespeare combined poetic genius with a practical sense of the theatre. This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama.
He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of characterisation , plot, language , and genre.
The Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success. Critic George Steiner described all English verse dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes.
These include three operas by Giuseppe Verdi , Macbeth , Otello and Falstaff , whose critical standing compares with that of the source plays.
Shakespeare was not revered in his lifetime, but he received a large amount of praise. Between the Restoration of the monarchy in and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas were in vogue.
A series of scholarly editions of his work, notably those of Samuel Johnson in and Edmond Malone in , added to his growing reputation. During the Romantic era , Shakespeare was praised by the poet and literary philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge , and the critic August Wilhelm Schlegel translated his plays in the spirit of German Romanticism.
The modernist revolution in the arts during the early 20th century, far from discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service of the avant-garde.
The Expressionists in Germany and the Futurists in Moscow mounted productions of his plays. Marxist playwright and director Bertolt Brecht devised an epic theatre under the influence of Shakespeare.
The poet and critic T. In the s, a wave of new critical approaches replaced modernism and paved the way for " post-modern " studies of Shakespeare.
He encloses us because we see with his fundamental perceptions. Boas coined the term " problem plays " to describe four plays: Shakespeare conformed to the official state religion, [k] but his private views on religion have been the subject of debate.
The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by his father, John Shakespeare , found in in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street.
However, the document is now lost and scholars differ as to its authenticity. At 18, he married year-old Anne Hathaway , who was pregnant.
Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than romantic love.
From the 18th century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare portraits fuelled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare.
That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as misattributions, repaintings, and relabelling of portraits of other people.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English playwright and poet. This article is about the poet and playwright. For other persons of the same name, see William Shakespeare disambiguation.
For other uses of "Shakespeare", see Shakespeare disambiguation. Stratford-upon-Avon , Warwickshire , England. John Shakespeare father Mary Arden mother.
Thou art more lovely and more temperate Religious views of William Shakespeare. Sexuality of William Shakespeare. Under the Gregorian calendar , adopted in Catholic countries in , Shakespeare died on 3 May.
In addition to presenting the town with a statue of Shakespeare, Garrick composed a doggerel verse, lampooned in the London newspapers, naming the banks of the Avon as the birthplace of the "matchless Bard".
This motto is still used by Warwickshire County Council , in reference to Shakespeare. Rowse , the 20th-century Shakespeare scholar, was emphatic: His will made that perfectly clear—in facts, puts it beyond dispute, for it uses the Protestant formula.
Adams, Joseph Quincy A Life of William Shakespeare. University of Illinois Press. The Soul of the Age. Retrieved 23 April In Cheney, Patrick Gerard.
The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe. Changing Styles in Shakespeare. The Books and School of the Ages.
The Invention of the Human. Shakspere and His Predecessors. On Editing Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Dramatists. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Essays in Honour of Kenneth Muir. In Levine, Robert Steven. William the Conqueror The name William became very popular in the English language after the Norman conquest of England in by William the Conqueror.
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