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Colors used were, in order of value, gold, silver, blue and red. Miniature cards used are much smaller and thicker than conventional American or westernized playing cards.

In the main, miniature 3-dimensional figures are 1" wide and 2"-3" high and are usually magnetic-based. Indicia on both faces of chips or cards usually vary and provide for the playing of other variations of the game.

Playing pieces are also used to play other games included in specially designed "super" sets which usually contain three or more basic variations.

In that chips, cards, and discs allow for stacking, ready and easy recognition, "sight" counting or "measuring", the speed and mathematical exactitude of playing Machcala is far greater and more exciting than Mancala.

It is used to initiate, then double and redouble bets from twice to two-hundred and fifty-six times the original amount of the wager.

Another apparatus which plays a critical role in the game is the regular 3- or 5-minute "egg timer" or hour-glass. These may be used as "timers" when a case with built-in timing devices is not used to embody the game.

Question and answer cards prevent the removal of captured pieces if questions are not correctly answered. See Methods of Play section.

Chance cards contain directives of two kinds: Play money is a critical ingredient for all financially-oriented games and is used to settle captures to pay-off value immediately when made or as post-capture transactions.

Because the color-coded value-pieces indicate value, a scoring pad is not required unless the pay-off factors on the value-line are in play.

In sum, the above-described apparatus was used to meet the structural requirements of the games of the invention and to improve the quality of play.

As a result, the games of the invention are far more dynamic and intellectually challenging than conventional Mancala and compare favorably with Backgammon, Go, Chess and other classical games.

Most of the apparatus in the game serve to enhance the state of art relating to the structural embodiment of Mancala and Mancala-like games and the way said games are played.

How this is brought about will be clearly revealed by an explanation of the syntactical and behavioral aspects of the basic game of the invention and the numerous variants spawned.

The game products of the invention fall under three primary categories: This game--a vectorial "banking" game called "Banko"--is financially oriented in regard to its scenario.

The basic game encompasses the fundamental structural elements and behavioral dimensions present in the Machcala "Xchange" and "Relay" games, as described hereinafter.

Revealed are several unique features which are entirely new to Mancala and Mancala-like games. This matrix was used to develop the miniature combinatorial version of the basic game of the invention.

A full and clear understanding of this, the so-called basic game of the invention, is essential to comprehension of the wealth of Machcala games which it generates.

Anyone with skills in the field of game design will readily see that several features of this parental and cellular game represent significant advancement over the prior art vis-a-vis games dealing with count and capture techniques and pattern formations e.

Tic-tac-toe, Morris, Chinese Checkers, and Mancala. Game scenario or setting--financially-oriented; relates to a number of "Banks" or "Casinos" competing for deposits or patronage and offering different levels of pay-off Value or Point Pieces: These represent property to the accumulated and are differentiated color-codings as follows: In sum each player has 4 Gold and 4 Silver pieces.

These are the "Banko" and "Killer" pieces. They have no value when captured. However, they are empowered to make or negate capture as follows: Only Banko can capture Killer to form a zero-valued "pair.

Initial Set-up - Back game: Total factored value with gold placed in 2: The game ends when one player goes bankrupt and cannot meet the call for payment.

The timing device must be started before commencing the move called deal in the front game and stopped following the end of the deal in the back game.

When captures are made settlement is made "off" the timer. Thus the MACH-1 time frame relates to move-time deal-time only. To initiate the first move in the front game, the player lifts all the pieces called set in either bank and deposits one in each successive bank moving clockwise from one row to the other.

Deals are confined to both rows. If the last piece falls in a loaded bank, that set is lifted and then dealt, as in a relay race, until the last piece falls in an empty bank or capture is made, as defined.

A player can only exercise the option to switch reverse or diagonal after making a deposit in a forward direction. Only 2 Forward moves, 1 Reverse and 1 Diagonal are allowed per deal.

The lift of a new set in a front game relay combination constitutes a new deal. Note too that in "vectorial" games a player may initiate a switch from his own second bank X2, Y2.

See Methods of switching in "regular" Machcala games. This procedure involves the exchange of value pieces for power pieces and is not included in the vectorial series of games.

See methods of play-regular games. Capturing in the Front Game: No capture may result from the first "opening" deal in either game.

Pay-off value would be determined by the color of the pair and pay-off factor. A pair of specials has no value. If the bank behind that captured also contains a pair these are taken by way of bonus capture.

Settlement is not made until the deal in the back game is completed. Capturing in the Back Game: If a deposit s was made in the other bank and said bank contains a pair, as defined, these are taken by way of bonus capture.

Payoff value is factored 1: Captures are evaluated and paid at the end of the deal in the back game. This is usually done "off" the timer.

A pair of Silvers captured in a 1: A pair of Silvers captured in a 2: A pair of Specials has no value. These are usually picked following a move that ends in capture--limited to two.

Directives on these cards being about unexpected financial reversals or advances. Not recommended for advanced level play.

See rules of play section. Bets may be made and doubled by use of the doubling device, as described; e. Both the Front and Back Game end when all value pieces have been captured or players are reduced to one piece each.

Pay off is made as per value and position of the piece at 1: This may be a mutual exchange. Side bets are usually settled at the end of each game.

A score card may be used but is not necessary. It is of interest to note that banks-in-competition bear logos of well-known gaming or financial institutions.

Thus, apart from being a useful and entertaining article of manufacture, the game serves as an advertising medium directed toward the furtherance of trade and commerce.

It is played exactly as described for the combinatorial game. Mach-1 is reduced to seconds or 10 seconds per move. It will be observed that the cells between the first and last called corner cells offer a 5-way option on the next drop, as indicated by the vector.

The maximum number of switch options is represented by the 8-sided vector in "relay" or combinational relay-xchange games.

Machcala vectorials are usually limited to cells per row in regulation "Xchange" games i. The center row is "commonly" or "jointly" owned.

Thus both players may lift and deal any set in any bank on the center row or on their own row. Capture of a pair of the same color can be made from the back or center row.

Vectorial options are limited to the 3- and 5-way switch, as shown. All cells between the four corner cells offer the player a fiveway vectorial option as shown.

Mach-1 is and seconds respectively. Special shapes and sizes: Machcala vectorials were rendered and successfully tested on matrices containing as few as four and as many as cells.

The placement of numerals from 1 to 12 in the center of the board suffices to provide the field for the dice game. The object of this variance is to move pieces in such a way as to form pairs, as defined.

The King is invested with negative powers of Killer K and the queen has the power of vector V. Vectorial games may be embodied on any device normally used for making arithmetic calculations.

Vectorial "Drill Formation" Games: These variance take one of two forms: This is done with great virtuosity and includes dance movements, gymnastics, acrobatics, and the like.

These embodiments provide the capability for playing up to 12 vectorial games in one set. Capability is achieved via use of game overlays.

Another embodiment which achieves the same end is the multi-game TV cartridge for video computer game systems. The simulation capability of the invention is aptly demonstrated by a game derived from the basic "Scenario" or Banko game.

Let us examine the game of FIG. Note that the game case has two built-in timing devices which serve to facilitate the "speed" aspect of the game.

Both players are in charge of 24 "posts"--the three horizontal rows of 8 cells each on either side of the value-line in FIG.

The playing pieces are color-coded chips bearing indicia which assign value as blocs of shares. The objective of the game is twofold: The net effect is the realization of gains or losses on invested capital.

The "initial set-up" is made by each player selecting a plurality of value chips colored gold, silver, blue, and red sufficient to place four one of each color in each of the eight un-charted posts of the "sell" game on the first two rows; four value chips are also placed in each of the eight cells of the back row or "buy" game.

Each "point" chip 5a and 5b bears indicia on one face indicating its value. One Mach called Dealer is entered in each loaded post. Finally, "Cala called "Chairman of the Board" and Killer called "Commissioner of the Xchange" are entered in each game in four different loaded posts in the front game and 2 in the back.

Questions relate to the Street Market and finance. If not a special deck of chance cards with "Head Office" instructions is shuffled and placed on the table beside the recommended doubling device.

Directives on the chance cards contain both "pro" and "con" instructions affecting financial positions. With verification and setting of the MACH-1 time frame and the fixing of the "price for the seat" on the Xchange first bet , the game is formally set-up for the opening "ceremonies" to commence.

Before the opening move may be made certain preliminaries have to be attended to; e. The flip of a chip or coin usually decides first move.

These rearrangements have been tested and are somewhat similar to "opening moves" in chess. Both players then negotiate the "opening contract" which must be for at least 10, shares for each game, i.

No captures can be taken from the floor until this "opening contract" is made. Once it has been made, however, all captures are "open" as described hereinafter.

See Switch Move Options. Next, the move in the back or "buy" game is made by the same player lifting all the chips in any of the eight loaded third-row posts and dealing one in each post in a counter-clockwise direction.

Generally, pieces are dropped as lifted. However, rules for this game require that special pieces be dealt last.

The order of the deal is a any kind of value piece in the order as arranged before the deal begins; b Machs aka dealers or brokers ; c Big Mach Chairman of the Board ; and, d Killer Commissioner of the Xchange.

While the Specials are being repositioned the order of the pieces "set" may be changed. When overt counting is forbidden it also enables the player to covertly assess the number of pieces in each set under the guise of claiming to be "only rearranging" or "stacking" while, in fact, counting.

Once the opening contract of 10, shares or more has been made, all subsequent captures may be made without regard to value, provided the number of pieces hit is two, three or four.

Thus, such captures could be as low in value as 5, shares 2 blocs of 2, shares each or as high as 40, shares 4 blocs of 10, shares each.

Prior to settlement value pieces captured in the front "sell" game are stacked before the post s from which they were bought captured.

A bonus capture is earned as follows in the front "sell" game: A player may elect to continue or stop dealing after capture is made.

All "sell" game captures are mandatory. However, transactions are not settled until after the back game move has been completed. After the "sell" game move ends whether in capture or non-capture the player makes the "buy" game move with the timer still running.

These pieces are said to be "made" as against "hit" in the "sell" game. If other posts in which chips were dropped in that deal or "run" also contain two, three, or four pieces, and if these are "chained" or linked" i.

All captures in the back game are classified as "offers" or "buy opportunities" and are optional. If the "offer" is accepted, the player keeps prices captured including specials and pays for value pieces only, as per "Price Per Share" stated on the Value-line for the respective posts: The opponent then "settles" all outstanding "transactions", if any, and the player picks one or two chance cards and follows "orders" which may relate to paying or collecting outstanding loans margins , interest, etc.

When all the value pieces have been captured, the Stock Xchange "closes" for the day and the players then proceed to ascertain their "closing" positions.

It becomes obvious after playing this "Stock Exchange" variant a few times that "playing the posts" maximizing "pay-off" capture values is of vital strategic importance.

In many instances a player may "sacrifice", i. Next in strategic importance to command of the value-line is the corner game-called "playing the corners.

These and other aspects of strategic play are discussed hereinafter in the sections dealing with Methods of Play. The most critical area of proficiency, however, may well be mastery of the "corner game", i.

These then are the important procedural and strategic aspects of playing the so-called "Stock Market" simulation game. I feel that it is fair to say that the various innovations described in this game and elsewhere in the specification, represent a new and significantly improved process for making and playing Mancala games, in general, and Mancala-like simulation games in particular.

The preferred embodiment of the parent simulation game FIG. Although this format is recommended as that which provides the highest quality of play, it is not to be regarded as the only way to render the game.

These three variations are played as follows:. The eight charted posts of both rows represent the "front" or "sell" game and the eight "logoed" posts of both rows represent the "back" or "buy" game.

Rules moves and captures, etc. In this version, however, all posts are "in competition" and all captures are compulsory. Chips or cards may be used as pieces as described hereintofore.

The charted posts represent the "Sell" game and those logoed represent the "Buy" game, as shown. In this version of the game, all captures are mandatory.

The game is played substantially as prescribed for the "back" or "buy" game of the basic game and the parent simulation game. Mach-1 is 10 minutes per player.

All time frames for Machcala Xchange games and variations were pre-tested and established in order to emphasize this critical aspect of play.

Numerous tests at different levels of proficiency proved that these levels of "speed" can be achieved with practice. As a result, it is felt that a ten-minute Mach-1 time frame for MXI and MRII versions is within the reach of most players who adhere to the caveat that speed counts.

All the vectorial and Mancala-like games of the invention may be rendered in electronic and computer-based embodiments. The microprocessor incorporated in any of these games is a miniature electronic system with a computer program which supplies the intelligence for memory, response, and detection.

When used in conjunction with other electronic elements in a circuit, lights and sounds are actuated to promote additional dimensions of play.

The following description exemplifies this capability by way of several examples: The deposit of this last piece will therefore increase total contents of that bank to two, three, or four pieces.

Capture-value is "stored" by the computer or transactions may be "settled" as they occur--with chips or play money. Macs are omitted and only the two power pieces will be used, with powers vested as stated heretofore.

Rex is called "Commissioner of the Xchange" or "Killer" and prevents capture by any piece. Pro-I excludes all switch moves, multiple capture limitation, and Mach bonus.

It is recommended for beginners. At PRO-II level all aspects of advanced play are involved, including switch moves, multiple capture limitations, Mach bonus, betting, etc.

The game ends in one of two ways: As shown in FIG. Each cell pays a different ratio of dollars to capture-value as shown.

The pay-off ratio for cells ranges from 1: There are two classes of playing pieces: The Special "power" pieces restrict or enhance capture capability.

Although these pieces have no value, they do count in the number of pieces in a cell for capture purposes. Big Mac must be computerized as a "positive" force.

Killer, on the other hand, represents a "negative" force. Whenever this piece occupies a cell, no piece therein may effect capture.

A captured "killer" may be "recalled" from "STORE" and brought back into play for defensive purposes. Big Mac, however, may not be recalled. Both power pieces have no value.

All moves begin forward counter-clockwise with the transfer of the total content of the set dealt to each successive bank or cell. There are four legal moves which may be programmed:.

After this has been done the player has the option to "switch" the direction of the next drop or drops, subject to certain limitations.

The second switch move Diagonal or Reverse can be made from any of the 4 corner cells--following a switch move. Illustration of Programs for a move:.

During the course of a deal a player has one "Reverse" and one "Diagonal" switch option. After the first switch all corner cells are "open".

Thus each player initially "controls" 52 pieces. Multiple captures are not limited if player captures in all ten banks in the course of the same deal.

Note that moving time does not include "settlement" time used to make payments with chips or play money. This relates to any speed slower than Mach The bonus earned is such that Mach As illustrated in FIG.

The thirty-six 36 symbols represent the following functions:. Increases the level of difficulty when playing "Auto", i. The formats depicted in FIGS.

This is embodied in the traditional manner with push-button or lever control. These games are ideally suited for this kind of embodiment and would seem to generate very high levels of interest among game lovers at all intellectual levels.

The critical variables and lists used are dimensioned in steps to , and are as follows:. A copy of the program and print-out which provide the basis for microprocessing of the "intelligence" of this and other electromechanical and computer-based games of the invention, if needed, will be forwarded under separate cover.

Said games include, but are not limited to the basic game of the invention BANKO and all "scenario" and simulation games described hereinafter.

See, in particular, FIGS. Thus, anyone with skills in the field of computer games and micro-processing technology will agree that I have resolved the "software" problems which hitherto precluded the advancements in the state of the art.

Accordingly, the games of the invention may be used as models to reduce several strategic games to computerized format if they are based on vectorial and ManCala-like concepts, as defined.

The program supplies the intelligence, memory, response and detection capability which are used with other electronic elements in a circuit to facilitate the creation of lights and sounds which enhance the behavioral dimensions of play.

Both players are represented by X and Y. At start, the game board is as shown in FIGS. Value assignment is optional on 2: Players are allowed two forward moves 1st and 2nd , one Rev, and one Diag.

It prevents capture by any piece in the "set" occupied. Thus, Vector or any value piece can capture Killer by forming a "special" pair. Vector V is a "wild" positive force which can make a pair with any value piece or Killer.

It may also be captured and "paired" by any value piece. Both K and V have no value when captured. If two separate pairs are formed, both are taken--called multiple capture.

Although the computer records all capture values most players prefer to demand settlement in cash play money as captures are made.

This is so even if each player has one piece. Settlement is at pay-off value of 1: The player with most funds at the end of the game is the winner.

Score card is not required unless moves are annotated. Anyone skilled in the art of computer game technology will readily see that the approach perfected may be modified to computerize all vectorial and Mancala-type games.

Four examples will suffice to illustrate this capability. The success achieved by the perfection of the vectorial concept implicit in VECTOR, the basic cellular game, led to the adaptation of the essential techniques to create or improve new computer-based games.

The following examples merely serve to exemplify this capability and in no way defines or limits the scope of the invention:. Thus, when stacked sequentially, a pyramidal structure is formed.

The initial set-up may be a traditional pyramid or any of 5,,, re-arrangements ur-pyramids programmed and stored in the computer. The object of the game is to break down the assigned pyramidal structure and rebuild a proper pyramid without placing a larger piece atop a smaller.

The number of cells is limited to three. Speed of play is a critical element and the central motive is to establish a race to beat the Mach-I time frame, as determined.

To initiate play, a player removes the topmost piece from the stack and places it in any of the two empty cells. The second piece is then removed and placed in the third cell.

Then the third piece or one of the two pieces already moved is transferred. And so on, bearing in mind the two constraints relating to size of pieces and number of cells to which transfers may be made.

Phase I consists of breaking down the form constructed; Phase II is building or rebuilding a proper pyramid. Score for the player who succeeds in accomplishing this task is the sum of the values of the pieces.

Value is assigned relative to size. This score is doubled if the pyramid is re-formed in the central cell, which pays off 2: Both scores are increased by Mach bonus points: Adaptation of computer technology to the playing of Pi-Mach a vectorial board game in its preferred emobidment is brought about by establishing a series of arrays, each of which represents a cell.

The seven or more pieces of the pyramid are initially set up in the central cell. Each block is represented by a number associated with its value.

If a piece is selected to be moved from Stack C to Stack L "center cell" to "left cell" , a test is made comparing the top elements of each stack.

Should the top element of Stack C be less than the top element in Stack L, the move may be made and the element is popped off C and pushed onto L.

If the converse is true, the move may not be made since a larger piece would come on rest on a smaller piece. It will be observed that at any one time, there will only be three legally permissible moves for each player.

Which is the correct logical move? Various methods may be used to keep track of the time expended by each player. Score for a "full" Pi is the sum of the values times the payoff factor of 2: The winner is the first to accumulate a pre-determined number of points.

It also bridges the gap between jig-saw puzzles and vectorial board games. Aesthetics, however shape, sound, music is more pertinently involved, seeing that a vast array of figures may be sculpted.

The game is played by manipulating and qualitatively positioning pieces called Tans of various sizes and shapes to form recognizable figures which are assigned randomly by the computer: The object of the game is to arrange the tans to form the shape shown on the screen, and to do so as quickly as possible.

To initiate play, a player commands the computer to "show" a figure. This is called the "assignment". The figure first appears at center screen and then, in significantly reduced scale, on a "split" screen, as soon as the player makes the first placement.

Pieces are numbered from 1 to 15 and provide for three levels of difficulty: The assignments, as noted, are permanently shown on split screen together with time lapsation.

As soon as the first placement is programmed, the figure transfers to the split screen section. When the player is "lost" or uncertain about the placement of a piece in a certain section, it is possible to have the computer provide an "assist" See Programming Grid, FIG.

Two "assists" are allowed, but each request reduces the score by a predetermined number of points. Such "help" takes the form of a correct answer to a query, e.

The positioning of a tan by the computer in any empty grid is always in the position that said piece occupies in the correct solution.

This is so whether or not the tan is placed in the correct grid. The positioning of a tan immediately beside another is a random fit selected by the computer.

If said fit is incorrect, the player must program a "shift" "re-position" command, e. Each assignment has a pre-established Mach-I time frame level of difficulty and rating and weighted score value.

Game is usually points. This is a highly aesthetic feature--offering hundreds of thematic figures. As improved, the game matrix consists of three concentric squares or circles and 24 points.

Each player has pieces and the object of the game is to "make" three-in-a-row formations as quickly as possible.

These types of commercially feasible embodiments may be achieved by programming the behavioral intelligence, as follows:. Popping in "pieces" on selected points with a view toward forming 3-in-a-row horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.

Multiple jumps checker-like are permitted. Usually, one additional point. Game may be won by being the first to make a three-in-a-row formation; forming two or three such before opponent; blocking opponent; and, reducing opponent to two pieces only.

Each player brings in one piece on any vacant point. Moving and Jumping--pieces may be moved along lines in any direction and make checker-type jumps.

Pieces are designated "O" and "X" and take on the additional definition of the point occupied, i. Thus, O1-O3 indicates a jump over piece at O2. If Mach is not started with the first command, the move is not implemented.

On the other hand, if Mach is not stopped before the "Run" is implemented, it keeps going. This variation encompasses all the ramifications, challenges, frustrations, and rewards involved in the quantitative and qualitative transfer of light waves from one position to another with a view toward forming certain vectorial patterns, which opponent cannot duplicate.

Object of the game is to assign opponent a "run" consisting of movements of the light to 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or more contact points and to challenge a correct response within a given time frame.

The game matrix consists of 8 paths, 3 ringed ranges, 24 contact points and a centorium. Playing pieces are, in fact, colored light waves that are programmed to move along any of the 8 paths to selected contact points.

Although the primary focus is visual color and direction , aural elements augment the aesthetic dimensions of the game. To initiate play, one player programs a "run" which is flashed and "held" on the screen for 10 seconds.

An attempt is then made by opponent to repeat the "run" exactly. The player may make one or more attempts to do so, seeing that score is a function of the number of "tries" and amount of time used to duplicate a given number of "runs".

These four variants exemplify the flexibility of vectorial and MachThink Mancala-like concepts in creating new games, converting puzzles to games and in improving ancient games in the public domain.

The process used to develop the simulated scenario capability involves several technical procedures which I will attempt to describe for practioners in the field of game design.

The procedures involved are encompassed in the following flowchart: As illustrated in the flowchart, the sequence of operations and procedures employed in the development of a Mancala-like simulation game by the process of the present invention first involves in-depth study of the parameters, rules, and regulations of the subject matter to be treated.

Next, the playing fields and structural formats discussed hereintofore must all be evaluated as to the specific procedural requirements and artistic objectives.

The artistic design function will involve experimental mock-ups using readily identified symbolic items playing field, court, balls, bats, athletes, charts, etc.

This procedure is the first part of a series of operations which must be undertaken to establish claims to the simulation.

After the setting or stage for the playing field is established, the next step involves the coloring and decoration of the playing pieces poker chips, counters, tokens, coins, cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc.

The classification of pieces is dictated by the requirements of the subject matter. The general classification of pieces are of two kinds, as stated: These special pieces are of three types: The range of values assigned to playing pieces relates to the desired total score at the end of play.

Usually a ratio of 1: The successful design of the playing field as regards functional as well as esthetic aspects and the playing pieces represent the two most important operations of the game simulation process.

Thereafter, the production of a plurality of playing cards bearing instructions which impact favorably and unfavorably on the final outcome or score is undertaken.

These instructions introduce an element of "chance" or "luck" into what are, essentially, games of wit and cunning, i.

Carded instructions usually relate to one of these scenarios--time wasting or value reduction or value increase. For example, in the "Stock Exchange" simulation game, a card might instruct a player who has just completed a capturing deal to "call and chair an important board meeting, limited to 30 seconds.

The games of the invention usually involve side bets--with play money. In order to initiate and increase wagers, a doubling device is necessary.

The "wheel-of-fortune" illustrated is highly recommended in that it is capable of increasing bets from 2 to times the initial amount.

When the doubler is not in play it is placed flat on its face. When it is in play it is placed on its side with the number uppermost representing the level of doubling attained.

Betting is not compulsory in most games and no penalties are imposed if a player declines an offer to "double up. These procedures complete the initial set of operations which must be performed before a simulation or scenario game may be created.

The next steps of the process relate to "test-runs" leading to the establishment of "time-frames" for Mach-1 speed of performance, and compilation of rules of play.

Notation of each move and outcome of test games must be made via usage of a descriptive notation system with a view to evaluating and reevaluating various set-ups, moves, and outcomes.

The objects of the test runs are to establish the following: Where Mach-1 time recording is concerned the game case of the process with its separate built-in timing devices, is most appropriate.

This feature, along with the four-way storage capability, makes it one of the best though not the only method of embodying Mancala and Mancala-like games.

Similar games, as well as other non-Mancala-like games; e. Method of Play--rules of the game to ensure realistic reference points vis-a-vis co-relationships between the game and subject matter treated.

The latter may be classified under four main headings:. Advertisements--In this grouping the primary focus of the game is to promote its corporate or institutional sponsor s.

A game developed for say a bank or life insurance company would fall in this category. Several sets are usually provided. In these instances the structural elements and behavorial dimensions are adapted to meet the constraints and objects of the medium.

In order to master the diverse applications of the process the language of Machcala must be mastered. See definitions of technical terms as stated hereintofore.

Elements of the Matrix: The cells, switch cells, centerfield or transactions area, pay-off or value-line, as illustrated and defined.

Stage or field of play, bar point or ridge, left and right homeboard, storage units, timers, as illustrated and defined.

The structural and behavioral flexibilities of the process led to perfection of its capability to "simulate" innumerable "scenarios. The following examples are provided to show how the principles and procedures of the process were used in respect to the above-cited claim.

They serve to exemplify the limitless scope of the invention without in any way limiting its possibilities. The scenario depicted relates to competition for medals during the course of the Olympics.

There are graphics of selected major events in each cell of the receptacle areas, together with the five rings representing the official Olympic symbol.

The first two horizontal rows on either side of the center court area represent the front or "Winter" Olympics; the third row represents the back or "Summer" Olympics.

The initial set-up calls for four value pieces Gold, Silver, Bronze, and White worth 3, 2, 1, and 0 points respectively , in the designated set-up calls of the front and back games.

Each player then places one athlete Mach in each loaded cell. When the set-up is completed there will be 16 loaded cells with a total of 84 point and special pieces on each side.

In that only the athletes and the Spirit of Olympia can effect capture, the front game is played in the usual Machcala MRII mode with one player lifting all the pieces in any cell of the first two rows and dealing one in successive cells moving clockwise.

All value pieces captured are taken off and stored. Bonus captures are earned as described hereintofore for the Stock Xchange game.

The first capture, however, must be an en prise pair of 2, 3 or 4 pieces. All cells are "in competition". The back game is played in the usual MXI manner with captures of one, two, or three medals by athletes and the Spirit-of-Olympia.

If the cell next to the captured cell is loaded with a total of two, three, or four chips and if there are other cells contiguous to and continuous with that cell also loaded with two, three, or four chips, all these conjoined cells are captured in addition to the cell from which capture was first made.

The game ends when all value pieces have been captured even if specials are still in play. Mach-1 time frame is fifteen minutes, based on the level of proficiency achieved by above-average players.

Numbers on the chips represent runs scorable 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this game. The scenario depicted involves two teams competing at "test" or "speed" cricket to ascertain which will be the higher scorer when the match one or two innings ends.

The "batting" team sets up with five value runs pieces and one Mach Batsman in each of the ten back row cells. The "fielding" team places five "runs" chips and one Mach "Bowler" in each of the ten back row cells.

Hat-Trick are then entered in any two loaded cells. Rules for moving and capturing are similar to above-described Machcala "Relay" two-row front games.

However, the limitation rule is waived and all captures made are scored before their respective wicket numbered Th object of the game for the team at bat is to score as many runs per wicket as possible before the team fielding captures ten wickets, which is to say, ten special batsmen pieces, and "outs" the opponent.

If the team fielding fails to capture ten wickets before all the runs value chips have been "scored" captured , then the game is set up again and continued until the fielding team has captured ten wickets.

The fielding team then "goes to bat" and the winning side is that which scores most runs. Redeployment and re-entry rules apply.

Runs value chips captured are disregarded by the "fielding side". Mach-1 is ten minutes when played at above-average speed. The scenario involves two players competing in a one set club match six suits.

Colored poker chips are used as playing pieces not shown and bear indicia representing a tennis ball with the respective point won in the center of the chip.

Thus, the red chip represents "15", the value of the first point scored in tennis; the blue chip represents "30", the second point scored; the silver chip represents "40", the third point scored; and the gold chip represents "game", the fourth and last point scored.

The initial set-up calls for four point chips to be placed in each cell together with one Mach "player". Big Mach is called "Ace," Rex is the Umpire.

Only "players" may score points, i. Each suit counts as one game toward the total of six for the set. Method of capturing in this game is similar to that for MXI games, i.

More than one round may be required to complete the set. Mach-1 time frame is 10 minutes and earns no bonus. Mach-0 earns a penalty of minus one game.

The scenario involves "rushing stars" of a National Football League team attempting to break "the record" of yards in a game.

Each of the "point" pieces represents the number of yards gained or lost on a rush, as follows: Each gold chip represents a "first down" or 10 yards; the silver chip represents a "good gain" of 5 yards; the blue chip represents a "short gain" of 3 yards; the white chip represents a "gain" of 2 yards; and the red chip represents "no gain or loss".

A player would therefore have to win at least one half of the total yardage in the game at M-1 speed in order to equal the record of yards.

There are 20 Machs in this game. Big Mach is called "Superstar" and Rex is the "referee". Mach-1 time frame for this game is 10 minutes and capture is made in MX-I mode, as prescribed.

The chips are three, two, and one point baskets. The initial set-up may be three two-pointers and one three-pointer per cell, or two "two-pointers", one "three-pointer", and one "one-pointer" chip in each cell.

Rex is the referee. There is a total of points, depending on set-up used. When this total is increased by M-1 bonus a grand total score of points for both teams is possible.

The game is played in the MXI mode described. The game depicted is American Soccer. The scenario involves two teams "Home" and "Away" engaged in a series of 8 matches during the course of the entire season.

The eight games played by each team is indicated on the value-line area. There are three different kinds of point chips--"shots" which are worth zero point; "assists" worth zero point; and goals worth two points.

The initial set up calls for one "shot", one "assist" and "two goals" in each cell Match. Shots and assists pieces taken may be discarded seeing that they have no value.

At the end of the game with all point chips captured a determination is made as to the winner or loser of each of the 8 matches in what is called the "face-off" or "show-down" phase of play.

The team with most goals scored in a match wins that match and scores two points. If the number of goals scored is the same for both sides, the match is said to be drawn and scores one point each.

A match in which no goal is scored by either side is disregarded. Capture in this game is from any of the eight calls games per MX-1 rules.

Mach-1 time frame determined by testing above-average -level players was established at 10 minutes. The game simulated is Casino Roulette.

Captures have varying pay-off values as indicated by the value-line compartments with "pay-off" of times the amount captured.

There are 16 Machs in this game. The object of the game is to win as much money as possible with transactions settled with play dough after each capture.

Mode of play as per MX-1 rules. Mach-1 speed is 10 minutes. The game simulated is the well-known casino game Baccarat.

The pieces are poler chips or Machcala cards with symbolic indicia representing two decks of playing cards imprinted on only one face. At the start the cards are shuffled and dealt four per cell.

Machs are optional in this game. Captures, in usual MXI mode, are used to form "hands" in accordance with the established rules which govern play for baccarat and chemin-de-fer.

When scoring the value of a hand two or three cards , tens are ignored. Thus, the highest possible score for a hand is 9 since face cards and tens are scored as 0, aces as 1, and any other numerical card at its face value.

Since each capture is used to form a hand, several hands would have been formed and put aside when all the point cards have been captured and the game ends.

Hands are then "shown" one set at a time and compared in a "showdown" phase. The player with the best hands in each "show down" scores 3 points for a win natural 8 or 9 count , 2 points for a regular win and one point for a "stand-off".

These hands would be scored as "automatic" winners when shown, Mach-1 time frame is set at ten minutes. Up to eight players may participate in this Machcala Xchange card game variation.

The name of the game rendered is "PrepCenter". Several of these keyboards with different "subject-drills" are included in each "set to form a program and this enables the teacher or parent to drill the child in numerous and diverse areas, e.

Playing counters are different colored chips FIG. The players use these chips, once captured, to "scramble" words or number sequences on the "Scrambleboard" indicated in the center court area FIG.

There are 20 Machs students in play. Play money and questions and answers cards are included as accessories. The student is always rewarded for captures whenever the correct answers are given.

A special feature of this game is its two-face keyboard. It may be seen from FIGS. In all such cases indicia on the faces of the keys represent unitary measures of the subject matter depicted.

The student always "goes against" the drill master teacher, parent, or fellow student. In addition, one variation of PrepCenter lends itself to the use of the fingers as "pieces".

In this variation which depicts Chisenbop methods top row of FIG. It should be noted that although this rendering of "PrepCenter" a Machcala Xchange educational game is on a flat plastic or cardboard surface, it may also be encased FIG.

The game illustrated is one in a series of national and ethnic game simulations which was especially created to focus on the rising expectations and aspirations of minorities in this country.

The name of the game illustrated is "Aframerica" and was specifically developed for 25,, Americans of African descent. The game simulation scenario relates to the concerted and often tragic efforts of these people--from to to secure full and equal civil rights and economic and social parity.

Two different versions of play were created with each relating to the so-called Black Revolution: In the first version civil rights activists attempt to raise "bread" funds for the furtherance of The cause; and, in the second, a message "We Shall Overcome" is formed with captured pieces for highest point score.

Pieces are chips or small machcala cards bearing photographs of well-known black heroes. Educational material providing additional information on each hero is included on one face of the chance cards.

Playing pieces are of different colors gold, silver, blue, red and numbered to indicate different values of similar colored pieces. They are also "lettered" to facilitate playing the scrambled-message variation called "We shall overcome".

The set-up requires four point pieces and one special called "Civil Rights Activist" in each cell. Big Mach is called "Leader" and Rex is called "Klan".

Capture is in the usual Machcala one-row mode with the winner being the player a to collect the most money "bread" for The Cause or b formation of the message "We shall overcome.

Play money is used to settle transactions and the chance cards are drawn following a move that ends in capture. The educational value of the game is thus tremendously enhanced by this rich, historical feature.

It is of interest to note that this game set FIG. In that all games included in said system are of African origin, the appeal to millions of Black families in this country and abroad will be extremely high and socially significant.

The packaging approach also results in prospective owners securing a wide range of first-rate games up to six at tremendous savings in costs.

It also lends itself to structural variations in the various formats discussed hereintofore. In order to further illustrate the merits of the inventions, I will now describe subject matters which have been treated as "Series" seeing that several depictions were required to adequately cover their diversity.

These Simulation series as against single subject treatment would, of course, include several of the above game products; e. Although these further examples are not illustrated, it will be readily seen that they evidence the successful application of the game design and simulation process to a potentially limitless range of subject matters.

Like the basic game of the invention, Machcala Stock Exchange and its variations hereintofore described, these further examples do not in any way depart from the scope of my invention but only serve to exemplify it:.

This series include patriotic games which are usually encased on the MXI-6 thru MXI matrices with center court design depicting the geo-physical map outline of the target nation and playing pieces representing four or more major national monuments, symbols or heroes.

The MACH-1 time frame is ten minutes. A special feature of these games is the inclusion of advertising spots and musical buttons which play the "anthem" after a designated number of suits have been formed.

In particular, a version called "American Anthem: A Machcala Xchange Game" is encased on the MXI-8 matrix with different colored pieces bearing representation of four great monuments: The object of the game is to capture pieces and form four-piece suits--trios, pairs or quads.

A "hand" of four pieces is allowed. Captured pieces not so used are discarded. MACH-1 is 10 minutes. Subject depicted is a big city of a great nation.

Game is encased on MX-6 through MX matrices with center court design depicting the sky line or map of the city treated. Value pieces are of different colors, lettered and numbered as to value, and bear photographs of monuments of the city.

All captured pieces are used to spell out the sentimental statement: In particular, the game called "I Love New York: A Machcala Xchange Game" is encased on a MXI-8 cell matrix with the magnificent skyline of the city in the center court area and a "Big Apple" at the center of the ridge.

Letter designations represent all the twelve letters in the statement: MACH-1 time frame is ten minutes. Regular bonus, fines, and rules apply substantially as described for MXI games.

Similar versions of this game have been successfully developed for all major American and foreign cities with population in excess of ,, e.

This series of Machcala Xchange games simulate religious subjects. Usually the center court depicts a critical imagery of the subject treated.

Pieces are machcala-cards or chips bearing indicia relating to the subject matter with designated values, powers and roles.

In particular, the game called "The Ten Commandments: The pieces in the game are machcala-cards of four different colors gold, silver, blue, white with one of the ten commandments and its particular value on each face.

The initial set-up requires five point pieces commandments in each cell. The object of the game is to capture pieces and form one or more ten-piece suit spread representing the ten commandments--to earn highest score.

The game ends when all value pieces have been captured. Chance cards are included with Biblical questions and are picked after each capture.

MACH-1 is ten minutes. Play moving, capturing, etc. Several other religious subjects have been treated, e.

The games of this series are directed primarily to students of military strategy and war games buffs. Various sized matrices may be used with the entire playing area or center court only decorated to represent the field of battle or negotiation.

The point pieces depict the objects or goals being fought for and specials are soldiers Machs , Commanders Big Machs , and Traitor Rex.

Pieces chips or cards represent villages whose support is being sought by Machs and Viet Cong forces: The method of play is substantially as described for MRII games.

The object of the game is to command majority support. Then he produced State Toxicologist Wen- ilrll L. Sowcll, and State Investigator Willie B.

Painter to usiify Fuller had told them he never touched the car. Sanders also told of finding a footprint near the scene and Nlmwing it to Fuller shortly after the murder.

Next to the stand came a Columbus taxicab driver, James Uiiditis Taylor, who dropped the first explosive testimony in ilir niiil. Hihcr Building, when he heard the shots.

I he car roared west on Fourteenth Street, through red traffic. He said he heard the shots as he was closing the building. His watch showed the time as 9: Kelley said he walked to the front of the building and saw Fcrrell "half walking and half running" down the sidewalk in front of the U.

But the state still had its ace to play. That came in the "surprise testimony" of a thirty-year-old carpenter, Cecil Padgett, Padgett testified that he was walking in the direction of the Coulter Building about 9 P.

As Padgett crossed the street toward where his wife waited in 3 car. The new Russell County Sheriff, Lamar Murphy, had con- tinued his quiet work on the case and had come up with Padgen, a witness who made up for the staters loss of Griffin.

After nearly four weeks of the most sensational and bitterly fought trial in Alabama history, the jury got the case. About twenty hours later, on March 9, , the verdict was read: On May 5, , he was acquitted of the charge of killing Patterson.

Garrett is still in the mental institution at Galveston, Texas, but will face extradition when, and if, he is released.

The state contended that Fuller not go to the County Jail until after the murder, and ir he sped away from the scene, circled left and approached ic jail from the rear three minutes after the shooting.

There is no denial of the fact tiiat Garrett wms in a Binning- ini hotel, a hundred fifty miles from Phenix City, at the time uf the murder.

Garrett had appeared that day before the Jefferson County Grand Jury which later indicted him for vote stealing.

He had fought it since , and was buitling the scum for all he was worth in , convinced it I hud to be destroyed before it destroyed the state.

In the elec- tion, Sheriff Mathews personally solicited the aid of every mlitT sheriff in the state for Patterson. The tide had flowed [iUt once more when Patterson ran as a delegate to the JcuHJcratic National Convention with machine opposition.

He essentially was a "loner" who worked in his own UiHige ways to obtain his objectives. The shots that killed Patterson boomeranged. In death, "The Man Against Crime" focused the nationwide spothght on the forces in Phenix City that he had set out to destroy.

And they paid, as did he. For the thousands of soldiers from Fort Benning who made the trip across the Chattahoochee River, to Phenix, a good time was synonymous with women.

During the period from to there were over a lousand prostitutes plying their trade in Phenix City and immediate environs.

This figure was verified by National Juard investigators from work records seized in the various assignation houses after miHtary rule was clamped on.

The Camp featured a small place in the front for serving catfish and hush puppies— a treasured southern dish— and an upstairs compartment which catered to another kind of trade.

It was constructed of plain unpainted concrete blocks. Entrekin was first and last a business man. He garnered from eighty to one hundred thousand dollars a year from the efforts of the girls who worked for him.

His was considered one of the high class houses in that area, where commercial sex could be found at price ranges to fit the individual pocketbook.

The Fish Camp did not cater to the shirt-sleeve trade. The minimum for a date was ten dollars, and the going price for a "straight date" was calculated on the basis of one dollar per minute which the customer spent behind closed doors with the girl of his choice.

Most of the patrons of the camp were officers and enlisted U 24 PHE? On the nights that soldiers were paid ar Benning. The capacity of the Fish Camp was twenty-four girls at a time.

The house was used at other rimes when, for any reason, the heat was on at the Camp. When a customer went through the door at the back of the restaurant he found himself confronted by a husky bouncer whose job it was to keep order and to hold the watch on the customers.

Although the minimum was ten dollars, the customer was charged additionally for each minute over time and no customer was allowed more than thirty minutes.

For her part, the lady uncovered only that portion of her body specified on the contract. It cost extra for the female to disrobe completely.

Work records on the girls showed that one such specialist earned eight hundreJ dollars in a single night, which she split fifty-fifty with the house.

That was the regular division. The house got half of the earnings of each girl, and the girl contributed an additional ten per cent of her take for "overhead" operations.

The girls worked under strict house rules, and for any The Sex Market 2S infraction of discipline, definite fines were imposed.

The rules were posted for all to see, and Guardsmen found them still tacked to the walls when they raided the Fish Camp two months after the lid was clamped down on the notorious sin city.

These rules prescribed a fifty dollar fine for drinking on the job; up to one hundred dollars for being late or for staying away from work without adequate excuse.

Girls were not allowed to leave the premises during working hours with- out special pemiission, and the house had an iron-clad ruJe against the husband of any girl being at the establishment while his wife was working.

In some instances, the girls had families in addition to a husband, and sometimes traveled in expensive trailers juiUed by equally expensive automobiles.

The syndicate girls, or "circuit riders" as they were some- times called, worked the Camp on special order. This child w;is subsequently jailed briefly, the house having been notified early in the evening that a raid was pending, and the girls would have to remain for a short time in the lockup.

Within two days the word had been passed down and the syndicate girls, along with scores of independent operators, began the trek across the river to Columbus.

The syndicate members left by train, bus and plane for new assignments somewhere along the cir- cuit. The other prostitutes began competing for business in Columbus or made connections in nearby towns and cities in Georgia and Alabama.

Some of them stopped in Aiken, S. C, site of the U. Catering to a high paying clientele, the Fish Camp felt obliged to offer the best merchandise that could be obtained.

The girls were recruited from cities and hamlets over an area of five states and a "talent scout" devoted full time to the job of finding and obtaining new girls.

Some of the methods employed will be discussed more fully in the chapter on B-girls, since many of these stepped over the borderline from that profession into prostitution.

It was operated at one time by Ernest Youngblood and "Heavy" Daugherty. House rules were not so strict or well defined, but nevertheless the giris who worked for even a week around Phenix City knew that Daugherty and Youngblood were not characters to be trifled with.

In addition to catfish and sex. Little Uchee offered various forms of gambling to its customers, and those in the know reported that a fellow also could get a "lift" with the needle or a pill.

It was run by Wilson McVey, and catered to the five dollar per date trade. It was almost always "off-limits" to mihtary personnel, but soMiers by the score frequented the house in civilian clothes and sometimes in uniform.

Perhaps Army authorities at Benning could be blamed in part for vice conditions in Phenix, but it should be said in iheir behalf that most of the prostitution houses were "off limits," even though there was no strict enforcement of the ban.

The collection of vicious, hand-made weapons, as well as rifles and pistols, which guardsmen seized in raids on the sin dives of Phenix, would fill a small arsenal.

There were lead-filled palm-slappejra and black-jacks made of stiff springs, one end filled with babbitt. Any girl who got too far out of line might find!

A kick in tlie stomach can put a "working girl" our of business for a long time in addition to spoiling an evening. Hill Top House, also called the House on the Hill, was at one time the largest of the bordellos.

Business became so rich in its heyday that a two-car garage was converted into a four bed make-do adjunct.

Still insufficient to accommodate the crowds, facilities were broadened. The McVey gang ate tlie rabbits. Before his fail, he once beat a girl with his fists and elbows.

He pistol whipped a GI with a. A second cabbie, rushing into the fray, calculated wrong ant! McVey and his boys began forcing the man outside, but the customer fought back.

Hill Top House was the jumping off place. It was for transients, the down and outers, the low class. Though un- sanitary and weedy, even by Pheni.

K City standards, it could not begin to rival in those respects another establishment operated by McVey. This was known as The Social Club, I hi: It was hidden in a ihrckly wooded area several miles from Phenix, and could be [Hflched only by a winding, dusty road.

Crack Pilnniui, came upon the place while searching for a cache of Ipmibling devices which LaRuc himself had tipped them nbout.

LaRue was brought The scene and led the search parry inside. Inside, the Guardsmen found a smooth, walled-in area for tling fighting cocks, and bleacher seats around the ring for spectators.

There were slot machines and other gambling ices, a bar and drink stand and a place where sandwiches be purchased. Bur what puzzled Guardsmen most was ics of small cubicles around the sides of the building, so that a person had to bend over to crawl inside.

Veteran Army officers, whose combined experience covered most of the face of the globe, agreed that they had never seen more sordid facilities for dispensing sexual satis- faction.

All of the places mentioned so far were located outside of the poUce jurisdiction of Phenix City, but all were a part and parcel of the Phenix City atmosphere and influence.

In- side Phenix City proper there were scores of prostitution contact points and many places where facilities were provided for customers on the premises.

The largest prostitution operation in the city was centered at The 4J1 Club, partially owned by red-haired Rudenc Smith, who, incidentally, was the only woman ever to occupy any position of real authority or influence in the B-girl and prostitution setup.

The latter was just across the road from The Club, and National Guard investigators reported they found rental turnover to run as high as twenty times in a single night.

In addition to operating several businesses, all geared to the fleecing of soldiers, Rudene also found time to recruit new female talent on her own.

She was one of the three or four women to be caught in the gigantic vice cleanup net spread by Guardsmen. One of the charges against her was for the alleged enticing of girls into prostitution.

To explain why so few women were charged with any offense growing out of the Phenix City vice cleanup, it should be pointed out that General Hanna, early in the invandga- tion, announced that he was not seeking to prosecute the individual prostitute or B-girl, but was after the ring-leadere, whether male or female.

In pursuance of this policy, about one hundred girls were picked up, or volunteered for ques- tioning by the investigators. Some of them were held in jail for periods ranging up to a week but almost ail of them were The Sex Market 01 released without charges.

This was made possible by the coopera- tion of the newspapers and wire services covering the story. All agreed to withhold names and pictures where the safety of i[ic witness might be at stake.

Grand Jury Foreman Cloyd Tillery made the request of reporters after the Grand Jury had found that a curtain of fear was causing many witnesses to hold back information or to hide out to keep from being juestioned.

While most of the so-called cafes clustered on the. But no discussion of prostitution in Phenix would be com- plete without mention of a place known as The Square Dance Club, at the time of the vice crackdown.

Under different management at various times, the club was known for years ;ts the French Casino, and was one of the hottest spots in a town that sizzled from border to border from the heat and passion generated in its half a hundred sex dives and clip joints.

In flashing neon on each side of the club it advertised "GIRLS," In a glass-enclosed space in front of the club were posted the pictures of scores of scantily clad hustlers.

The glamor pictures were changed from time to time as new bodies were brought into the merchandise man under the guise of entertainers.

The Casino, or Square Dance Club, was one of the spots where it was an even money bee an unattached male could not get from the front door to the 32 PuENix City- Sex Mabket 33 niiddie of the dinily-Iighced rooni without being approached by one of the house-girls.

The same thing was true in ahnost all of the cafes which served little food but much drink and entenainment, abng with the occasional "knock-out drops" for the unwary customer who was foolish enough to flash a heavy wallet or pay for drinks with a large bill To attempt to list all of the prostitution contact places in a city where sex was one of the main industries, would amount, almost, to listing a business directory of the town.

Guard investigators made public the names of five persons they listed as the bosses, or ring-leaders of prostitution.

On that list were Rudene Smith, R. Not one of the five ever made any public denial of the charge. In Phenix, as in any other city where crime, vice and gambling are major industries, the operators must pav off to law enforcement officers and other officials for the privilege of operating unmolested.

The usual rate for a house was one-third of the net rake after it had been divided with the girls who earned it.

For years the payoffs were made in a single lump sum and the split was made by tlie minions of the law. Then a dis- scment between the two law enforcing factions caused jiplit of the contributions.

After that payoffs were made ich week tu an officer from the police depanment and a Icputy sheriff. The payoffs from prostitution, according to ivcstigators, amounted to as much as seven thousand dollars week.

In Alabama there is no direct statute prohibiting the opera- lon of a house of prostitution outside any city or its police risdiction.

All cities have ordinances against disorderly con- and fornication. There is a state statute on fornication. It it is no answer to the operation of assignation houses, ice the act must be proved.

All of the persons mentioned in this chapter as being con- iccfcd with prostitution, with the exception of Tommy Japps, have been indicted and some of them convicted on ;harges growing out of the prostitution racket.

In most cases the state could do no better under existing laws than to idict a house operator on vagrancy charges, with an occa- 1: As it was, the National Guard wrote "finish" to the highly jrganized sex sale.

Many of them sought new areas for their operation, and ic turned to new fields of vice. Many of them id not hesitate to make the suggestion to a lonely GI that ie could find surcease for his loneliness in female companion- lip for a price.

Tlie cabbies had to work harder for their two dollar tips this way and the fringe benefits they had enjoyed in Phenlx were harder come by.

One driver who had performed above and beyond the call of duty in toting men about Phenix was rewarded with a chicken dinner by the proprietor of a cat house.

The male "madames" of Phenix paid for protection from raids with large sums of money, but the girls often were called upon to contribute to the payoff with the one com- modity they had for sale.

Among them were some who held responsible posi- tions in the community or in politics. On occasions when any of the "brass" came a-calling, the entertainment was on the cuff- Among the VIPs who frequented the sex-camps were many who were addicted to abnormal forms of satisfaction.

As a number of girls later attested, they were required to perform acts which were painful, disgusting and sometimes humiliating without receiving any payment.

This was, of course, a kind of blackmail on the pan of these leading citizens. They never were so much at home as when with a group of their sisters-under-the-skin, or with a man whom they felr might understand them.

Some of them, The Sex Mahkjet as probably a minority, reached out pathetically for this male insight. When the women hoisted their skirts and traipsed across the bridges into Columbus, some of them found themselves tied down to the area, just as many other wage-earners leant it is difficult to leave home.

Purely in the interest of scientific research, one of the auThors visited an ex-member of the sorority at her Columbus home. It was broad daylight and children were romping over the grassless front yard of the delapidated house.

Most active of the children was a husky, little blond fellow who led a troupe of three in and out of the wooden, frame dwelling.

A short, rather squatty woman with her hair in curlers answered the knock at the door. This girl had been in the game in Phenix City for years.

In fact the entire picture was one of filth and laziness. Even with all the dough she had raked in during her years of bedroom exercise, she was living hand to mouth.

Since the cleanup, she had taken a "respectable" job in Columbus, but she would meet gentlemen friends by appoint- ment.

Her own esrimate of life as a Phenix City prosritute was startling. Quite a few of the customers simply enjoyed disrobing completely and having one to three girls whip them.

Generally the girls got a big kick out of the action and giggled while per- forming the chore. There were those individuals who had highly personalized m Phenix City systems; such as, for inscance, the man who asked liis g-irl to undress, put a lampshade on her head, crass her eyes, and say "goo goo.

This was the seamy side of Phenix City. She said she left the tsble and by chance looked into one of the rooms. There she saw a man and woman performing the sex act.

She, herself, went into the trade because she needed money, she said. She had a child who needed an eye operation.

She, too, applied for and received a decent job, but when her employers learned of her past life, they dismissed her.

He traveled hundreds of miles tracking down principals, worked long hours ob- taining confessions and wrapping up his cases against the big shots.

McFall must stand out as one of the men to whom the state is most indebted for cleaning up a sordid situation. Lawson, also of Birmingham.

These two men proved beyond doubt that in Pheniv, America had its Number One city in sex, sin, and deviation. The words are more a statement of fact than a question.

For it is a strong-willed man, indeed, who can elude these female leeches before he has been separated from a large chunk of his ready cash.

The approach is usually made to the accompaniment of a caressing hand on the back of the neck or a suggestive squeeze of the arm. If trade is slack on that particular night, and the quarry shows sign.

If the man is seated, he is, literally, a sitting duck. This usually is followed by the girl imparting to her male companion in a husky-voiced whisper, "I like you, honey.

How about ordering a bottle of cham- pagne just for us? She can tell within a few tninutes: How- much money her companion has.

How dnmk he is. Just how far she has to go to separate him from the maxi- mum amount of his money. Except for slight variations in technique, they are alike as pebbles on a beach.

This may be conveyed by vi. It may be in the sweep of false eye- lashes or in the brush of a kiss on the car lobe from canmnc Lips. It all spells out just one thing: There were literally hundreds of B-girls in the pleasure palaces of Phenix.

Every man who has followed his natural cariosity and found himself in a joint specializing in strip-and-clip, can add his own familiar B-giri lines.

While tlie man cakes his bourbon at a dollar a shot, his new-found companion will be lifting a Coke disguised with ice cubes, or sipping tea.

To add the necessary deception and imparl the smell of liquor to her drink, the bar tender will pour bourbon into the glass, slosh it around and then pour in hot Coke.

To add spice and encourage more business, some times a girl will suggest that the man put a dollar bill inside her bra or her panties.

In addition to the fifty-fifty cut she gets on the drinks, she keeps all the cash she picks up in the manner described.

As her "date" gets drunker and bolder, the B-girl goes into another of her well rehearsed acis. She may promise to meet him after hours for a pany in her apartment or his hotel room, but he must first give her the ten or twenty dollars she charges for such entertainment.

Occasionally she may actually keep the date, if she likes his looks or thinks she may be able to bleed him for even more cash. Most of the time, however, he will spend the night alone, wondering how he could have been so foolish.

Daniel, the police chief of Phentx City until his ouster following the Patterson B4;iRL 99 murder, said more trouble was brewed from the broken promises of B-girls than any other one cause.

Meanwhile, the girl who collected the admission price has disappeared through the back door with all the sucker money she has collected- B-girb are not always prostitutes, though many of them do drift into the profession.

In Phenix City it was considered a sort of training ground for the girls who wanted to better their financial position by offering their love on the open market.

But not all of them chose to do so. One B-girl, inter- viewed by this writer, in. She resented, she said, the imphcarion that all B-girls went to bed with men.

Later, under questioning by investigators, this nineteen year-old brunette admitted that she had been intimate with one or two men, but protested that it was not on a commercial basis.

The working life of a B-girl in die better-class places was no more than sis to ten years, before she grew coarse and dissipated and lost her looks.

A few of the B-girls followed a normal feminine course and became the wives of soldiers. Some left the racket without ever taking the final step into prostitution.

Occasionally one of the smarter ones would step up into the management end of the business, or become a recruiter for the operators of the B-girl establishments.

But, like the prostitutes, most of them wound up as dope addicts, jail birds, or in the gutters of sin- soaked Phenix or Columbus. Most of them were lured into Phenix by other girls who told them of the glamor and money that would be theirs in the wide- open city.

They came as waitresses or curb girls, but if they showed proinise, they were soon approached with the proposition of becoming a B-girl in one of the spots along Highway or Fourteenth Street.

A waitress in Phenix could expect thirty five dollars a week with little hope of improvement in her field. A B-girl, on the other hand, was limited only by her own ability to cadge drinks or cash from the soldiers and pleasure-seeking civilians who frequented the dives where the girls worked.

Some of the waitresses stepped directly from the cafes into the bedrooms of some bordello. But B-girls provided the most fertile field for recruiting by the big prostitution houses.

Often the girl who caught the eye of one of the house opera- tors found that she had little or no choice in the matter of becoming a prostitute. Unable to meet the bail set, the girl would be in a receptive mood when ap- proached by some house operator wlio offered to square her with the law in exchange for work.

If the girl demurred, she often would find herself with a police record, charged with the very acts she refused to perform.

She would then be told that her record would be made known in her home-town unless she agreed to work for a specified time- This form of blackmail was common in Phenix.

The term "B-girl" is a contraction of "bar-girl," and she is associated with bars or drinking establishments. But often the B-girl was also a shill, or come-on, for gambling or even prostitution.

This usually amounted to five per cent for dice and poker, and a higher percentage on mechanical games or gambling devices.

The gallant swain, flushed from the cheap whiskey and dulcet promises, most often would volunteer to get the watch out of hock to show the girl that he was a "right guy.

In Phenix, the B-girls spoke a language all their own. When two or more of them began jabbering in something resembling pig latin, only another B-girl could understand.

The language was fomied by raking the second syllable of each word and putting it first. These CID men, in civilian clothes, made frequent visits to the various joints, trying to prevent the rolling or beating of soldiers whenever possible.

In statements to investigators after the beginning of the cleanup, scores of B-girls admitted rolling soldiers after get- ting them drunk and, in some cases, of feeding them knockout drops in their drinks to hurry the process to oblivion.

Sometimes the money would be removed and the purse returned. The girl got half of the money for her trouble and artistry.

The division was made by the bartender or proprietor before the girl left work for the night. If one planned to meet a custonier after hours, the boss wanted to know about it and get his cut, which was usually fifty per cent.

After that he had little interest in whether the girl kept her date or left the sucker waiting. One baby-faced B-girl, barely turned nineteen, wept bitterly as she told investigators about how she staned in the racket and finally stepped over into prostitution soon after the Phenix City cleanup got underway.

She left the doomed town as the neon lights began going out under the pressure of the anti-vice crusade.

She wound up in a trailer camp in Aiken, S. C, entertaining male customers. She was a frail, pathetically beautiful girl, with elfin features.

At first she protested that she was a virgin, but under questioning she broke down and related a sordid story which started when she was sixteen, with her own father getting her employment as a Phenix City B-girl in the dive where he worked as a bartender.

Most of the B-girls iiad fairly good educations, though this reporter found only one who had attended college. Several of them were graduates of high schools, and nearly all of them had attended high school and made average to good grades.

They came from smaU towns and rural communities in most cases. Lured by the promise of the gay life, fine clothes and good pay, they found, instead, the gaudy, ill- smelling dives, permeated with the filth and lust they at- tracted.

Those who chose it, or could be lured or forced into prostitu- tion, found a ready market for their charms in the thousands of soldiers whose military pay supported the racket-ridden enterprises of the town.

The show-girls were paid for entertaining as strippers, singers or dancers. The competent show-girls received about weekly for performing their chores.

All of them supple- mented their incomes by acting as B-girls between acts and cadging drinks from admirers.

Some of the show-girls were considered the private property of certain gangsters, and it could be most unhealthy for the average customer to become too playful around one of these.

Other show-girls were available for private parties and many of them could be had for a subsiantial price. Most of them were beautiful, and some had a degree of talent.

One beautiful, blonde stripper confided to the authors of this book that she had never taken a dollar from a man for any of her after-hour favors.

When she worked one of the clubs, she made about per week in salary and commis- sions from drinks. She never rolled drunks, she said, and her story was substantiated by the investigators.

The state got more for its money there than for any like amount spent for investigators and informers. Working from inside the rackets, she was able to obtain the low-down on prostitution, muggings, dope, abortion rackets, gambling and assorted criminal activities.

Her identity must still remain a secret for her own protection. Apparently learning the state had employed a B-girl, another one put the information to excellent advantage— for her.

She strutted into a beauty parlor, ordered the works and sat back to enjoy it. When the job was done, the girl haughtily strode from the parlor, telling the owner she was an under- 44 Phknix City cover agent for Aiilitary Chief General Hanna and ro charge it to him.

Many of the B-girLs, prostitutes and siiow girls were tat- tooed about the arms and body, but those who worked at The Bine Bonnet Cafe had a special brand.

Investigators found many girls who sported their initials in purple ink inside the lip. When a girl started to change jobs, her prospec- tive employer often would ask to see the inside of her lip, so he would know he was not pirating an employee from the outfit run by Frank GuUatt, who was considered something of a political power in the town, being the nephew of City Commissioner A, L.

The tattooing was done by a little hunchback in The Blue Bonnet. Even on the lips, it was said to be painless and no ill effects ever came to public notice.

The price of his work depended on the size of the tattoo desired and the length of rime it would take. Even the city itself levied a direct tax on the waitresses and B-girls.

The Phenix City official code provided for payment of a two-dollar fee by the girl before she was allowed to change jobs. Records of each of the girls were kept in a file at Police Headquarters.

These records showed not only their places of employment, but any other record for vagrancy, prostitution or law violations. In addition to the payolTs which public officials and law enforcement officers received from illegal activities of every kind, the girls were made to contribute.

This was done through periodic "fines" imposed upon them after being arrested on a tramped up charge. The arrest racket was part of the grand scheme used in forcing reluctant girls into the houses of prostitution.

Despite the lure of fun, fame and fortune which attracted the girls to Phenix City, very few ever grew wealthy working as B-girls or prostitutes.

They were commodities marketed for the benefit of the big shots. The two officers took the girls to jail. Buddy and the other cop tried to get fresh and told us that if we would go back into a cell with rhcm for an hour, they would let us out.

Upon our refusal they left and about fifteen minutes later, rhcy sent Ernest and Glenn Youngblood to see us.

Ernest and Glenn told us th: They wanted us ro work either at the Club or Uchee Fish Camp. She said she finally WHS freed when a police sergeant turned her loose and put her in a cab for home.

If this was true, then she was lucky, Such kind police sergeants were rare. She had been told it would cost her 15U5Q to be released, unless she worked it out in trade wirh Jowers or the Youngbloods.

The Youngblood brothers operated the bail bond business as well as having interest in several B-girl establishments and in the prostitution game.

In the nightly routine, ilie gjrls became accustomed to the routine of the nien. The B-boys wore fakies, lipstick, rouge, long hair, and exotic perfume.

But this was not com- mon. Mostly, women were the bait. The crime kings of Phenix City recognized how essential women were in attracting business from Fort Benning.

Even those not engaged in the prostitution racket used feminine charms as the come-on for gambling or other activities. Just the thought of "Ma" brings back memories to dogfaces around the world.

Of all the night clubs, honky- tonks, cafes, casinos, snuggeries, haunts, retreats, roosts, shacks, shanties, hutches, cowsheds, huts, lodges, courts, alehouses, gin miUs, bars, saloons, speakeasies, hovels, kennels, booths and stalls in Phenix Cicy, none could compare with "Ma" for the soldier-student clientele.

Her girls catered to them, too. One delectable blond bombshell, a stripper, had her own form of entertainment which worked on either the student body or the GI body.

This little girl would cozy up to a man, sit in his lap and tenderly caress his face and neck, cooing softly all the while. Laughingly, the wench would lead htm on, 47 48 Phenix City helping his iniaginarion rise like mercury in a thentiometer over an open flame.

Like the thermometer, Buster grew hotter and hotter. And like the mercury, which would explode our of the glass tube if it became too excited, the man would reach the bubbling over point.

Then suddenly the girl would juiTip up and make a mad dash to her dressing room. A couple of enlisted men— in excellent physical shape —almost made it, only to have the dressing room door slammed iti their face.

Undaunted they banged on the door with closed fists and wrenched at the knob. But like the lady hen who chose death to dishonor, the stripper was answering no knocks, believing it was something other than opportunity at her door.

The stripper was safe. These bouncers knew their job. Only when a fight became too rowdy would they oust tlie participants. More than once they let the sluggers battle it out inside the club.

The stool added to her iieight. It was a two-way proposition. Soldiers sometimes would be lined up outside wniting their turn to make a deal with a gid on the inside.

The major- type proposition seemed to run something like this: The length of rime began at fifteen minutes, with an increasing pay scale for additional time.

In this regard, "Ma" was little dif- ferent from the operators of any other houses of physical enjoyment. Where she differed primarily was in the field of entertain- ment.

No one disputed "Ma" when she said she gave her customers the best floor shows in Phcnix City. It was intoxicating stuff. It made even women clients drunk occasionally and they would jump on-stagc and begin their own amateurish form of disrobing.

This, in its way, wa. Once in a while "Ala" would pay the neophyte ten dollars. Why, sir, her place was so clean that church groups visited her weekly, soliciting donations.

All the customers would pitch in happily and so joyous was "Ma" over the visit that she would toss in a dollar herself.

If any of the cHents could remember such a visit, they probably thought it was all part of the entertainment. The stage where the strippers put on their acts: Up-front rabies were right alongside.

An ex- so Phenix City cited customer sometimes had to be restrained from vaulting to the platform and helping the stripper along the way.

The other portions of the shows were the ordinary honky- tonk circuit riders: They would tap dance or put their all into a song of years ago. But it was center stage for the old war horses.

At least for a fleeting spell they could live again in what had been but was no more. To this extent, "Ma" was a kindly soul. All she wanted was for her customers to have a good time.

That, and the major portion from their wallets. To help accomplish tfie latter, there was a game room at the jomt.

The croupiers would become tired of it all by then and turn on the heat. It was in an old and dirty house, nestled back among some residences on a dirt road, its squalor hidden by flickering lights and the darkness of the night.

A neon arrow, which blinked off and on, indicated the trail to passersby on the paved road a quarter of a mile distant. Peering over the tops of her spectacles in a quizzical manner, wearing a plain white uniform, "Ma" looked just like a practical nurse and if there was one thing "Ma" was, it was pracdcal.

She had the task of feeding, housing, clothingj and training the young ones until she remarried. With her brand-spanking- new husband, "Ma" went to New Orleans and there she took her apprenticeship in night clubbery.

She liked what she saw and learned, and upon returning to Phenix City, de- cided that was the life for her. Up went the club and in went "Ma" as the proprietres, on July 14, She liked what she had so much that she never visited any other booze spots in Phenix except the Lasso Club, where her sister competed with her.

The sister, Ada Eberhart, was never the showman "Ma" was. It was haunted, by a special type of human flotsam who made their homes in the gutters.

Unhke "Ma" who was always prim and soft-spoken, Ada was a dour-faced woman who got her kicks from vials and bottles. Even after the padlock was on the door, the veranda served as a favorite gathering place for the hop crowd.

As the clean-up hit Phenis City, the depression hit "Ma. It was a sad time. Her faith in the future of her beloved Phenix never wavered, even in the dark hours when she peered through the barred door of the jail.

They were very strict. Sitting next to her little granddaughter, "Ma" waved as the vehicle moved out into the street and carried her to her farm.

Weeks later she breathed a soulful sigh of relief when the charge against her wa. Justice, "Ma" figured, was triumphant. Her years of hard work, she said, had done nothing more than provide her with a living.

She claimed to be "flat broke," liaving only forty-seven cents. One of her daughters died in a drunken stupor in bed. The death of another child is lost in time.

Of her living children, "Ala" indicates a preference for her son, a chip off the o! He has a job exactly like hers, in Reno. He was undoubtedly surprised.

The date was September, , and Representative Cole must have sup- posed that the three-year statue of hmitations had run out on his former occupation as silent partner in a "bug" house.

Lee and Hughes, investigating for the Alabama National Guard, thought differently, but they did not inform Mr, Cole of their opinions.

Cole, quite certain he was in the clear, spoke freely of his operations. The Representative was a quiet man who also ran a restaurant in PhenLx Citv.

He lived near the Russell-Lee County line, in the country where it was nice and quiet. His home was modern, ranc! Despite his facade of gentility.

Cole did not fool all of the people all of the time. In a public hearing, a woman had identified him as a "bug" operator, A "bug" operator is one who runs or owns a lottery house.

He can bet one penny, a thousand dollars, or as much more as the individual house will allow. The player may win fabulous amounts-S25 on a five cent bet, for instance.

It is the odds which make the game so impelling. All the player need do is give his money to a "writer" who calls on him at home or at work, and then the player writes down three numbers from zero to nine.

A new game is played daily, five days a week. The player knows by nightfall whether his three numbers, in the order he selected them, are the winning combination.

Practically every bug player in the area chose the numbers " Nevertheless, soon they were back at the old stands. Winning numbers generally are selected in one of three ways.

The most common method in Phenix for yean was to take the stock and bond quotations from the New York Stock Exchange each afternoon.

Any series of three num- bers could be designated as winners. Since the quotations run in seven figures, it was customary that the second, third, and founh digits from the left would be the correct choice, or, the second and third numbers in one quotation, and the third in the second quotation.

Two obvious advantages came to the player under this selection system. He could read the results, for himself, in the final editions of the afternoon papers, and — even more important — there was no way for the house to fix the game.

There was a way for players to rig a selection, though. In the early days the operators had to learn by experience to stop selling tickets a half-hour before the stock market closed.

They became educated the hard way. An out-of- town player with telephone connections to the New York Stock Exchange would telephone the Phenix City houses within minutes after the market closed.

Unknown to the bugmen, he had the winning numbers before he placed his bet. He was forced to pay two sets of winners for the day. Winners can be chosen by the spin of a wheel or the toss of a special die, numbered from zero to nine.

Three spins of the wheel or three tosses of the die produce the three lucky numbers. Operators liked these arrangements because either is easy to fix.

Still another system is the dropping of numbered balls into a cloth sack. The operator reaches in the sack and pulls out three balls. But the operator wUi have held out the numbers which have been heavily played, saving himself a big pay- off.

He can also conceal numbered balls in a hidden com- panment within the bag. The bug is a vicious racket. They play It daily.

Even people on relief have invested in the bug from their tiny income. He gets so excited he invites all his friends and neighbors in to celebrate and the slush fund is gone in a wild melee of festivities.

In addition, the winner in Alabama has paid his writer five per cent of his winnings while a Georgia winner paid his agent ten per cent. Principal victims of the hug in the South are the Negroes.

S6 Pbenix City They, also, were the primary targets of another lottery racket. Operators boosted their income by selling dream books for fifty cents to one dollar.

Bug players— like all gamblers— are notoriously superstitious, which explains why so many chose the " Circus.

The number they select that day is the one abreast of the dream classification in the book. When Cole was detained at the city jail by Lee and Hughes, they talked for some hours.

Since even the writers needed federal gambling stamps, Hughes checked federal records to obtain names and addresses of purchasers. The writer could be used as a witness against the big man himself.

A problem, which could have become a major obstacle, presented itself. They feared their information would incriminate them.

Guardsmen searched lawbooks until they found a section which pennitted a writer to appear before the Grand jury and receive personal im- munity from prosecution.

With this law available, Hughes already had the goods on Cole before he started talking with him. September, said Cole, was the month in which the federal stamp liad become effective and that is when he quit the profession.

Cole was in error, but eventually the Guard dropped the lottery count. Cole paid a fine on a charge of leasing premises for gambling purposes.

The federal stamp did not go into operation until November 1, Cole said he had been a silent panner in "The Old Reliable Lottery.

He relied upon his partners, W, C. Roney and Lawrence Roney, father and son, to notify him daily of his profit and to deposit his share to his account in the bank.

The Old Reliable was one of seven lottery houses, of the bigger variety, going full blast in Phenix City.

Shepherd and Mat- thews moved out of the Ritz and A. Buck Billingsley moved in with his home-made organization. Yarbrough, on the other hand, was the old pro himself.

It was Yarbrough, too, who first taught Matthews the tricks with dice and cards that were to make him rich before he was twenty-five.

Now sick and o[d, Yarbrough is in a semi-retired status. Cancer has eaten away much of his nose and face, and he wears a mass of bandages as he sits at his cash register in the cafe.

His operation with McCoUister in the lonery project was motivated, in all probability, by nostalgia. Cole spent the night of his arrest in the city jail.

Through his generosity, he hoped to get shed of the drunks who might keep him awake. Unfortunately for Cole, about two a. As soon as the doors clanged behind him, he sat down on a coc and starred a game of poker.

He once donated 15, to his church. On another occasion, he gave S to the principal of a school with which to buy lunches for underprivileged children.

Of all the ilhcit operations in Phenix City, lotter -- was far and away the most profitable, the biggest, and the easiest. That was not representative.

Usually the loot did not nm so high. A peculiarity about the lottery operators was that they kept books. They held onto ticket stubs and itemized in derail the amounts they paid to writers on commission.

As did most of the underworld in Phenix City, the operators suffered from that not-so-strange disease among crooks: The malady could be labeled Al Caponitisi non-contagious, non-infectious, but oh-so-permanent, when it takes hold.

Elaborate records were discovered intact. There were large stacks of ledgers, running from current statistics back for several years. Entries chronicled even minute details of the million dollar business blue-printed by a chief bully-boy, C.

Head Revel, and his sometime partner, George Davis, Sr, The amount each writer earned in the past year was entered under his name, and federal withholding taxes were paid on income shown.

One hundred writers worked for the house. A balance sheet for one year shelved a gross income from lottery just shy of a million dollars. Sharing in the consignment was George Davis, Jr.

On the morning of the raid at Tlie Grocery, the elder Davjs, bloated and doped, rocked back and forth on a high stool. He spoke not a word and did not appear to be in- terested in what was going on.

In addition to lottery and gambling equipment uncovered, there were ten adding machines and several money counters in the so-called grocery.

A refrigerator in one of the gambling rooms contained hypodermic needles and smatf, empty glass bottles. Nearly four hundred doUars in bent coins had been thrown into boxes, apparently taken from slot machines and tossed aside to avoid re-use.

Loose twenty dollar bills were stuffed into envelopes. A file, marked "Revel Amusement Company," contained data on slot machines and juke boxes owned by the com- pany, which was separate from The Metropolitan.

The docu- 60 PiiENix City ments indicared the type of suacliine, its locstion, and monthly receipts gained from each.

Several weapons, including a sawed-off shotgun, were seized. So tlie crooks kept books in order to report and pay an income tax.

As a result, the treasury men have been working Phenk City for some years. Nevertheless, the government is practically certain to slap income tax evasion warrants against more nienibers of the fraternity.

Tax liens, totaling thousands of dollars, already have been assessed against upper bracket overlords. Their troubles were only beginning.

They said they had worked out a deal with the govern- ment. According to Godwin, St. But both Senior and Junior were charged in the clean-up with fourty-four counts of operating a lottery.

Under Alabama law, conviction on one count carries a fine, but the judge can add up to twelve months at hard labor if he desires.

Second and subsequent convictions carry mandatory jail sentences of from six to twelve months. They saw clean-up juries passing out heavy sentences and saw that the rime had come for them to act.

They tried to make another deal, this time With the state. Davis, Sr, offered to serve time, to plead guilty, if the prosecution would leave his son at home to run the lawful businesses.

The state would not accept. By now, Davis, Sr. This happened a few minutes past midnight, the morning of October Patterson was in his office talking with Private Investigator Fred Bodeker of Birmingham, and one of the authors, when his telephone rang.

His wife was on the phone, giving him a number to call back. Patterson dialed the number and a man answered im- mediately.

For a few minutes Patterson listened, then said, "Wait a minute. Should I see him? It took Davis not more than ftve minutes to arrive.

Patterson told the National Guardsman at his door to search the man before he was admitted. The pudgy, snaggled-tooth, cigar-smoking Davis kept Pat- terson tied up for one hour and fifteen minutes.

Amazed by the visit from Davis, Patterson promised him nothing. He eventually was given two years, to be served after Godwin Davis, Jr.

He had his own theory on the tie-up between gamblers and politicians. Most cops, he said, turn crooked because of greed or selfishness.

On election day, he continued, a man was arrested for voting in more than one box. Fonhwithj he went to see the mayor and inquired on what charges the man had been arrested.

The Metropolitan Lottery furnished the Davises and the Revels a luxurious living for years. The relationships between the families were complex.

The partnership employed seventy writers and enjoyed a yearly gross income of nearly 1 1,, The case is important for another reason for it put on the public record the close ties between a city commissioner ;md the underworld.

Gloria Floyd Davis was the daughter of Dr. Seth Floyd, a city commissioner whose father also had been on the com- mission.

Here was a direct family connection between a public official and a public underworld official. Revel admitted, while testifying in the case, that he was a close friend of Dr.

Gloria and Bubba married on May 5, After three ;ind a half year? She had been married twice previously and had one child by her first husband, and one child by Bubba.

The testimony is that of Gloria, being questioned by her attorney, John Patterson: Yes, he had me keep the books and tend to every- thing to see that it was working all right.

Gambling was the mn of the mill affair in the places about which she testified. He said the George T. This of course, was before Revel usurped the Met.

SO in , Revel said, reading from official records of the company. He said Bubba received Si 7,2 Davis for unpaid taxes. A Phcni-x City lawyer, James 1 1.

Caldwell, who since the clean-up has become solicitor, testified as an expert wit- ness in accounting. Caldwell said this could be done.

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About twenty hours later, on March 9, , the verdict was read: On May 5, , he was acquitted of the charge of killing Patterson.

Garrett is still in the mental institution at Galveston, Texas, but will face extradition when, and if, he is released. The state contended that Fuller not go to the County Jail until after the murder, and ir he sped away from the scene, circled left and approached ic jail from the rear three minutes after the shooting.

There is no denial of the fact tiiat Garrett wms in a Binning- ini hotel, a hundred fifty miles from Phenix City, at the time uf the murder.

Garrett had appeared that day before the Jefferson County Grand Jury which later indicted him for vote stealing.

He had fought it since , and was buitling the scum for all he was worth in , convinced it I hud to be destroyed before it destroyed the state.

In the elec- tion, Sheriff Mathews personally solicited the aid of every mlitT sheriff in the state for Patterson.

The tide had flowed [iUt once more when Patterson ran as a delegate to the JcuHJcratic National Convention with machine opposition. He essentially was a "loner" who worked in his own UiHige ways to obtain his objectives.

The shots that killed Patterson boomeranged. In death, "The Man Against Crime" focused the nationwide spothght on the forces in Phenix City that he had set out to destroy.

And they paid, as did he. For the thousands of soldiers from Fort Benning who made the trip across the Chattahoochee River, to Phenix, a good time was synonymous with women.

During the period from to there were over a lousand prostitutes plying their trade in Phenix City and immediate environs.

This figure was verified by National Juard investigators from work records seized in the various assignation houses after miHtary rule was clamped on.

The Camp featured a small place in the front for serving catfish and hush puppies— a treasured southern dish— and an upstairs compartment which catered to another kind of trade.

It was constructed of plain unpainted concrete blocks. Entrekin was first and last a business man. He garnered from eighty to one hundred thousand dollars a year from the efforts of the girls who worked for him.

His was considered one of the high class houses in that area, where commercial sex could be found at price ranges to fit the individual pocketbook.

The Fish Camp did not cater to the shirt-sleeve trade. The minimum for a date was ten dollars, and the going price for a "straight date" was calculated on the basis of one dollar per minute which the customer spent behind closed doors with the girl of his choice.

Most of the patrons of the camp were officers and enlisted U 24 PHE? On the nights that soldiers were paid ar Benning. The capacity of the Fish Camp was twenty-four girls at a time.

The house was used at other rimes when, for any reason, the heat was on at the Camp. When a customer went through the door at the back of the restaurant he found himself confronted by a husky bouncer whose job it was to keep order and to hold the watch on the customers.

Although the minimum was ten dollars, the customer was charged additionally for each minute over time and no customer was allowed more than thirty minutes.

For her part, the lady uncovered only that portion of her body specified on the contract. It cost extra for the female to disrobe completely. Work records on the girls showed that one such specialist earned eight hundreJ dollars in a single night, which she split fifty-fifty with the house.

That was the regular division. The house got half of the earnings of each girl, and the girl contributed an additional ten per cent of her take for "overhead" operations.

The girls worked under strict house rules, and for any The Sex Market 2S infraction of discipline, definite fines were imposed. The rules were posted for all to see, and Guardsmen found them still tacked to the walls when they raided the Fish Camp two months after the lid was clamped down on the notorious sin city.

These rules prescribed a fifty dollar fine for drinking on the job; up to one hundred dollars for being late or for staying away from work without adequate excuse.

Girls were not allowed to leave the premises during working hours with- out special pemiission, and the house had an iron-clad ruJe against the husband of any girl being at the establishment while his wife was working.

In some instances, the girls had families in addition to a husband, and sometimes traveled in expensive trailers juiUed by equally expensive automobiles.

The syndicate girls, or "circuit riders" as they were some- times called, worked the Camp on special order. This child w;is subsequently jailed briefly, the house having been notified early in the evening that a raid was pending, and the girls would have to remain for a short time in the lockup.

Within two days the word had been passed down and the syndicate girls, along with scores of independent operators, began the trek across the river to Columbus.

The syndicate members left by train, bus and plane for new assignments somewhere along the cir- cuit. The other prostitutes began competing for business in Columbus or made connections in nearby towns and cities in Georgia and Alabama.

Some of them stopped in Aiken, S. C, site of the U. Catering to a high paying clientele, the Fish Camp felt obliged to offer the best merchandise that could be obtained.

The girls were recruited from cities and hamlets over an area of five states and a "talent scout" devoted full time to the job of finding and obtaining new girls.

Some of the methods employed will be discussed more fully in the chapter on B-girls, since many of these stepped over the borderline from that profession into prostitution.

It was operated at one time by Ernest Youngblood and "Heavy" Daugherty. House rules were not so strict or well defined, but nevertheless the giris who worked for even a week around Phenix City knew that Daugherty and Youngblood were not characters to be trifled with.

In addition to catfish and sex. Little Uchee offered various forms of gambling to its customers, and those in the know reported that a fellow also could get a "lift" with the needle or a pill.

It was run by Wilson McVey, and catered to the five dollar per date trade. It was almost always "off-limits" to mihtary personnel, but soMiers by the score frequented the house in civilian clothes and sometimes in uniform.

Perhaps Army authorities at Benning could be blamed in part for vice conditions in Phenix, but it should be said in iheir behalf that most of the prostitution houses were "off limits," even though there was no strict enforcement of the ban.

The collection of vicious, hand-made weapons, as well as rifles and pistols, which guardsmen seized in raids on the sin dives of Phenix, would fill a small arsenal.

There were lead-filled palm-slappejra and black-jacks made of stiff springs, one end filled with babbitt. Any girl who got too far out of line might find!

A kick in tlie stomach can put a "working girl" our of business for a long time in addition to spoiling an evening.

Hill Top House, also called the House on the Hill, was at one time the largest of the bordellos. Business became so rich in its heyday that a two-car garage was converted into a four bed make-do adjunct.

Still insufficient to accommodate the crowds, facilities were broadened. The McVey gang ate tlie rabbits. Before his fail, he once beat a girl with his fists and elbows.

He pistol whipped a GI with a. A second cabbie, rushing into the fray, calculated wrong ant! McVey and his boys began forcing the man outside, but the customer fought back.

Hill Top House was the jumping off place. It was for transients, the down and outers, the low class. Though un- sanitary and weedy, even by Pheni.

K City standards, it could not begin to rival in those respects another establishment operated by McVey. This was known as The Social Club, I hi: It was hidden in a ihrckly wooded area several miles from Phenix, and could be [Hflched only by a winding, dusty road.

Crack Pilnniui, came upon the place while searching for a cache of Ipmibling devices which LaRuc himself had tipped them nbout.

LaRue was brought The scene and led the search parry inside. Inside, the Guardsmen found a smooth, walled-in area for tling fighting cocks, and bleacher seats around the ring for spectators.

There were slot machines and other gambling ices, a bar and drink stand and a place where sandwiches be purchased. Bur what puzzled Guardsmen most was ics of small cubicles around the sides of the building, so that a person had to bend over to crawl inside.

Veteran Army officers, whose combined experience covered most of the face of the globe, agreed that they had never seen more sordid facilities for dispensing sexual satis- faction.

All of the places mentioned so far were located outside of the poUce jurisdiction of Phenix City, but all were a part and parcel of the Phenix City atmosphere and influence.

In- side Phenix City proper there were scores of prostitution contact points and many places where facilities were provided for customers on the premises.

The largest prostitution operation in the city was centered at The 4J1 Club, partially owned by red-haired Rudenc Smith, who, incidentally, was the only woman ever to occupy any position of real authority or influence in the B-girl and prostitution setup.

The latter was just across the road from The Club, and National Guard investigators reported they found rental turnover to run as high as twenty times in a single night.

In addition to operating several businesses, all geared to the fleecing of soldiers, Rudene also found time to recruit new female talent on her own.

She was one of the three or four women to be caught in the gigantic vice cleanup net spread by Guardsmen.

One of the charges against her was for the alleged enticing of girls into prostitution. To explain why so few women were charged with any offense growing out of the Phenix City vice cleanup, it should be pointed out that General Hanna, early in the invandga- tion, announced that he was not seeking to prosecute the individual prostitute or B-girl, but was after the ring-leadere, whether male or female.

In pursuance of this policy, about one hundred girls were picked up, or volunteered for ques- tioning by the investigators. Some of them were held in jail for periods ranging up to a week but almost ail of them were The Sex Market 01 released without charges.

This was made possible by the coopera- tion of the newspapers and wire services covering the story. All agreed to withhold names and pictures where the safety of i[ic witness might be at stake.

Grand Jury Foreman Cloyd Tillery made the request of reporters after the Grand Jury had found that a curtain of fear was causing many witnesses to hold back information or to hide out to keep from being juestioned.

While most of the so-called cafes clustered on the. But no discussion of prostitution in Phenix would be com- plete without mention of a place known as The Square Dance Club, at the time of the vice crackdown.

Under different management at various times, the club was known for years ;ts the French Casino, and was one of the hottest spots in a town that sizzled from border to border from the heat and passion generated in its half a hundred sex dives and clip joints.

In flashing neon on each side of the club it advertised "GIRLS," In a glass-enclosed space in front of the club were posted the pictures of scores of scantily clad hustlers.

The glamor pictures were changed from time to time as new bodies were brought into the merchandise man under the guise of entertainers. The Casino, or Square Dance Club, was one of the spots where it was an even money bee an unattached male could not get from the front door to the 32 PuENix City- Sex Mabket 33 niiddie of the dinily-Iighced rooni without being approached by one of the house-girls.

The same thing was true in ahnost all of the cafes which served little food but much drink and entenainment, abng with the occasional "knock-out drops" for the unwary customer who was foolish enough to flash a heavy wallet or pay for drinks with a large bill To attempt to list all of the prostitution contact places in a city where sex was one of the main industries, would amount, almost, to listing a business directory of the town.

Guard investigators made public the names of five persons they listed as the bosses, or ring-leaders of prostitution.

On that list were Rudene Smith, R. Not one of the five ever made any public denial of the charge. In Phenix, as in any other city where crime, vice and gambling are major industries, the operators must pav off to law enforcement officers and other officials for the privilege of operating unmolested.

The usual rate for a house was one-third of the net rake after it had been divided with the girls who earned it. For years the payoffs were made in a single lump sum and the split was made by tlie minions of the law.

Then a dis- scment between the two law enforcing factions caused jiplit of the contributions. After that payoffs were made ich week tu an officer from the police depanment and a Icputy sheriff.

The payoffs from prostitution, according to ivcstigators, amounted to as much as seven thousand dollars week. In Alabama there is no direct statute prohibiting the opera- lon of a house of prostitution outside any city or its police risdiction.

All cities have ordinances against disorderly con- and fornication. There is a state statute on fornication. It it is no answer to the operation of assignation houses, ice the act must be proved.

All of the persons mentioned in this chapter as being con- iccfcd with prostitution, with the exception of Tommy Japps, have been indicted and some of them convicted on ;harges growing out of the prostitution racket.

In most cases the state could do no better under existing laws than to idict a house operator on vagrancy charges, with an occa- 1: As it was, the National Guard wrote "finish" to the highly jrganized sex sale.

Many of them sought new areas for their operation, and ic turned to new fields of vice. Many of them id not hesitate to make the suggestion to a lonely GI that ie could find surcease for his loneliness in female companion- lip for a price.

Tlie cabbies had to work harder for their two dollar tips this way and the fringe benefits they had enjoyed in Phenlx were harder come by.

One driver who had performed above and beyond the call of duty in toting men about Phenix was rewarded with a chicken dinner by the proprietor of a cat house.

The male "madames" of Phenix paid for protection from raids with large sums of money, but the girls often were called upon to contribute to the payoff with the one com- modity they had for sale.

Among them were some who held responsible posi- tions in the community or in politics. On occasions when any of the "brass" came a-calling, the entertainment was on the cuff- Among the VIPs who frequented the sex-camps were many who were addicted to abnormal forms of satisfaction.

As a number of girls later attested, they were required to perform acts which were painful, disgusting and sometimes humiliating without receiving any payment.

This was, of course, a kind of blackmail on the pan of these leading citizens. They never were so much at home as when with a group of their sisters-under-the-skin, or with a man whom they felr might understand them.

Some of them, The Sex Mahkjet as probably a minority, reached out pathetically for this male insight. When the women hoisted their skirts and traipsed across the bridges into Columbus, some of them found themselves tied down to the area, just as many other wage-earners leant it is difficult to leave home.

Purely in the interest of scientific research, one of the auThors visited an ex-member of the sorority at her Columbus home. It was broad daylight and children were romping over the grassless front yard of the delapidated house.

Most active of the children was a husky, little blond fellow who led a troupe of three in and out of the wooden, frame dwelling.

A short, rather squatty woman with her hair in curlers answered the knock at the door. This girl had been in the game in Phenix City for years.

In fact the entire picture was one of filth and laziness. Even with all the dough she had raked in during her years of bedroom exercise, she was living hand to mouth.

Since the cleanup, she had taken a "respectable" job in Columbus, but she would meet gentlemen friends by appoint- ment. Her own esrimate of life as a Phenix City prosritute was startling.

Quite a few of the customers simply enjoyed disrobing completely and having one to three girls whip them. Generally the girls got a big kick out of the action and giggled while per- forming the chore.

There were those individuals who had highly personalized m Phenix City systems; such as, for inscance, the man who asked liis g-irl to undress, put a lampshade on her head, crass her eyes, and say "goo goo.

This was the seamy side of Phenix City. She said she left the tsble and by chance looked into one of the rooms. There she saw a man and woman performing the sex act.

She, herself, went into the trade because she needed money, she said. She had a child who needed an eye operation. She, too, applied for and received a decent job, but when her employers learned of her past life, they dismissed her.

He traveled hundreds of miles tracking down principals, worked long hours ob- taining confessions and wrapping up his cases against the big shots.

McFall must stand out as one of the men to whom the state is most indebted for cleaning up a sordid situation. Lawson, also of Birmingham.

These two men proved beyond doubt that in Pheniv, America had its Number One city in sex, sin, and deviation. The words are more a statement of fact than a question.

For it is a strong-willed man, indeed, who can elude these female leeches before he has been separated from a large chunk of his ready cash.

The approach is usually made to the accompaniment of a caressing hand on the back of the neck or a suggestive squeeze of the arm. If trade is slack on that particular night, and the quarry shows sign.

If the man is seated, he is, literally, a sitting duck. This usually is followed by the girl imparting to her male companion in a husky-voiced whisper, "I like you, honey.

How about ordering a bottle of cham- pagne just for us? She can tell within a few tninutes: How- much money her companion has.

How dnmk he is. Just how far she has to go to separate him from the maxi- mum amount of his money. Except for slight variations in technique, they are alike as pebbles on a beach.

This may be conveyed by vi. It may be in the sweep of false eye- lashes or in the brush of a kiss on the car lobe from canmnc Lips.

It all spells out just one thing: There were literally hundreds of B-girls in the pleasure palaces of Phenix.

Every man who has followed his natural cariosity and found himself in a joint specializing in strip-and-clip, can add his own familiar B-giri lines.

While tlie man cakes his bourbon at a dollar a shot, his new-found companion will be lifting a Coke disguised with ice cubes, or sipping tea.

To add the necessary deception and imparl the smell of liquor to her drink, the bar tender will pour bourbon into the glass, slosh it around and then pour in hot Coke.

To add spice and encourage more business, some times a girl will suggest that the man put a dollar bill inside her bra or her panties.

In addition to the fifty-fifty cut she gets on the drinks, she keeps all the cash she picks up in the manner described. As her "date" gets drunker and bolder, the B-girl goes into another of her well rehearsed acis.

She may promise to meet him after hours for a pany in her apartment or his hotel room, but he must first give her the ten or twenty dollars she charges for such entertainment.

Occasionally she may actually keep the date, if she likes his looks or thinks she may be able to bleed him for even more cash. Most of the time, however, he will spend the night alone, wondering how he could have been so foolish.

Daniel, the police chief of Phentx City until his ouster following the Patterson B4;iRL 99 murder, said more trouble was brewed from the broken promises of B-girls than any other one cause.

Meanwhile, the girl who collected the admission price has disappeared through the back door with all the sucker money she has collected- B-girb are not always prostitutes, though many of them do drift into the profession.

In Phenix City it was considered a sort of training ground for the girls who wanted to better their financial position by offering their love on the open market.

But not all of them chose to do so. One B-girl, inter- viewed by this writer, in. She resented, she said, the imphcarion that all B-girls went to bed with men.

Later, under questioning by investigators, this nineteen year-old brunette admitted that she had been intimate with one or two men, but protested that it was not on a commercial basis.

The working life of a B-girl in die better-class places was no more than sis to ten years, before she grew coarse and dissipated and lost her looks.

A few of the B-girls followed a normal feminine course and became the wives of soldiers. Some left the racket without ever taking the final step into prostitution.

Occasionally one of the smarter ones would step up into the management end of the business, or become a recruiter for the operators of the B-girl establishments.

But, like the prostitutes, most of them wound up as dope addicts, jail birds, or in the gutters of sin- soaked Phenix or Columbus. Most of them were lured into Phenix by other girls who told them of the glamor and money that would be theirs in the wide- open city.

They came as waitresses or curb girls, but if they showed proinise, they were soon approached with the proposition of becoming a B-girl in one of the spots along Highway or Fourteenth Street.

A waitress in Phenix could expect thirty five dollars a week with little hope of improvement in her field. A B-girl, on the other hand, was limited only by her own ability to cadge drinks or cash from the soldiers and pleasure-seeking civilians who frequented the dives where the girls worked.

Some of the waitresses stepped directly from the cafes into the bedrooms of some bordello. But B-girls provided the most fertile field for recruiting by the big prostitution houses.

Often the girl who caught the eye of one of the house opera- tors found that she had little or no choice in the matter of becoming a prostitute.

Unable to meet the bail set, the girl would be in a receptive mood when ap- proached by some house operator wlio offered to square her with the law in exchange for work.

If the girl demurred, she often would find herself with a police record, charged with the very acts she refused to perform.

She would then be told that her record would be made known in her home-town unless she agreed to work for a specified time- This form of blackmail was common in Phenix.

The term "B-girl" is a contraction of "bar-girl," and she is associated with bars or drinking establishments.

But often the B-girl was also a shill, or come-on, for gambling or even prostitution. This usually amounted to five per cent for dice and poker, and a higher percentage on mechanical games or gambling devices.

The gallant swain, flushed from the cheap whiskey and dulcet promises, most often would volunteer to get the watch out of hock to show the girl that he was a "right guy.

In Phenix, the B-girls spoke a language all their own. When two or more of them began jabbering in something resembling pig latin, only another B-girl could understand.

The language was fomied by raking the second syllable of each word and putting it first. These CID men, in civilian clothes, made frequent visits to the various joints, trying to prevent the rolling or beating of soldiers whenever possible.

In statements to investigators after the beginning of the cleanup, scores of B-girls admitted rolling soldiers after get- ting them drunk and, in some cases, of feeding them knockout drops in their drinks to hurry the process to oblivion.

Sometimes the money would be removed and the purse returned. The girl got half of the money for her trouble and artistry. The division was made by the bartender or proprietor before the girl left work for the night.

If one planned to meet a custonier after hours, the boss wanted to know about it and get his cut, which was usually fifty per cent.

After that he had little interest in whether the girl kept her date or left the sucker waiting. One baby-faced B-girl, barely turned nineteen, wept bitterly as she told investigators about how she staned in the racket and finally stepped over into prostitution soon after the Phenix City cleanup got underway.

She left the doomed town as the neon lights began going out under the pressure of the anti-vice crusade. She wound up in a trailer camp in Aiken, S.

C, entertaining male customers. She was a frail, pathetically beautiful girl, with elfin features. At first she protested that she was a virgin, but under questioning she broke down and related a sordid story which started when she was sixteen, with her own father getting her employment as a Phenix City B-girl in the dive where he worked as a bartender.

Most of the B-girls iiad fairly good educations, though this reporter found only one who had attended college. Several of them were graduates of high schools, and nearly all of them had attended high school and made average to good grades.

They came from smaU towns and rural communities in most cases. Lured by the promise of the gay life, fine clothes and good pay, they found, instead, the gaudy, ill- smelling dives, permeated with the filth and lust they at- tracted.

Those who chose it, or could be lured or forced into prostitu- tion, found a ready market for their charms in the thousands of soldiers whose military pay supported the racket-ridden enterprises of the town.

The show-girls were paid for entertaining as strippers, singers or dancers. The competent show-girls received about weekly for performing their chores.

All of them supple- mented their incomes by acting as B-girls between acts and cadging drinks from admirers. Some of the show-girls were considered the private property of certain gangsters, and it could be most unhealthy for the average customer to become too playful around one of these.

Other show-girls were available for private parties and many of them could be had for a subsiantial price. Most of them were beautiful, and some had a degree of talent.

One beautiful, blonde stripper confided to the authors of this book that she had never taken a dollar from a man for any of her after-hour favors.

When she worked one of the clubs, she made about per week in salary and commis- sions from drinks. She never rolled drunks, she said, and her story was substantiated by the investigators.

The state got more for its money there than for any like amount spent for investigators and informers. Working from inside the rackets, she was able to obtain the low-down on prostitution, muggings, dope, abortion rackets, gambling and assorted criminal activities.

Her identity must still remain a secret for her own protection. Apparently learning the state had employed a B-girl, another one put the information to excellent advantage— for her.

She strutted into a beauty parlor, ordered the works and sat back to enjoy it. When the job was done, the girl haughtily strode from the parlor, telling the owner she was an under- 44 Phknix City cover agent for Aiilitary Chief General Hanna and ro charge it to him.

Many of the B-girLs, prostitutes and siiow girls were tat- tooed about the arms and body, but those who worked at The Bine Bonnet Cafe had a special brand.

Investigators found many girls who sported their initials in purple ink inside the lip. When a girl started to change jobs, her prospec- tive employer often would ask to see the inside of her lip, so he would know he was not pirating an employee from the outfit run by Frank GuUatt, who was considered something of a political power in the town, being the nephew of City Commissioner A, L.

The tattooing was done by a little hunchback in The Blue Bonnet. Even on the lips, it was said to be painless and no ill effects ever came to public notice.

The price of his work depended on the size of the tattoo desired and the length of rime it would take.

Even the city itself levied a direct tax on the waitresses and B-girls. The Phenix City official code provided for payment of a two-dollar fee by the girl before she was allowed to change jobs.

Records of each of the girls were kept in a file at Police Headquarters. These records showed not only their places of employment, but any other record for vagrancy, prostitution or law violations.

In addition to the payolTs which public officials and law enforcement officers received from illegal activities of every kind, the girls were made to contribute.

This was done through periodic "fines" imposed upon them after being arrested on a tramped up charge. The arrest racket was part of the grand scheme used in forcing reluctant girls into the houses of prostitution.

Despite the lure of fun, fame and fortune which attracted the girls to Phenix City, very few ever grew wealthy working as B-girls or prostitutes.

They were commodities marketed for the benefit of the big shots. The two officers took the girls to jail. Buddy and the other cop tried to get fresh and told us that if we would go back into a cell with rhcm for an hour, they would let us out.

Upon our refusal they left and about fifteen minutes later, rhcy sent Ernest and Glenn Youngblood to see us. Ernest and Glenn told us th: They wanted us ro work either at the Club or Uchee Fish Camp.

She said she finally WHS freed when a police sergeant turned her loose and put her in a cab for home. If this was true, then she was lucky, Such kind police sergeants were rare.

She had been told it would cost her 15U5Q to be released, unless she worked it out in trade wirh Jowers or the Youngbloods.

The Youngblood brothers operated the bail bond business as well as having interest in several B-girl establishments and in the prostitution game. In the nightly routine, ilie gjrls became accustomed to the routine of the nien.

The B-boys wore fakies, lipstick, rouge, long hair, and exotic perfume. But this was not com- mon. Mostly, women were the bait. The crime kings of Phenix City recognized how essential women were in attracting business from Fort Benning.

Even those not engaged in the prostitution racket used feminine charms as the come-on for gambling or other activities. Just the thought of "Ma" brings back memories to dogfaces around the world.

Of all the night clubs, honky- tonks, cafes, casinos, snuggeries, haunts, retreats, roosts, shacks, shanties, hutches, cowsheds, huts, lodges, courts, alehouses, gin miUs, bars, saloons, speakeasies, hovels, kennels, booths and stalls in Phenix Cicy, none could compare with "Ma" for the soldier-student clientele.

Her girls catered to them, too. One delectable blond bombshell, a stripper, had her own form of entertainment which worked on either the student body or the GI body.

This little girl would cozy up to a man, sit in his lap and tenderly caress his face and neck, cooing softly all the while.

Laughingly, the wench would lead htm on, 47 48 Phenix City helping his iniaginarion rise like mercury in a thentiometer over an open flame.

Like the thermometer, Buster grew hotter and hotter. And like the mercury, which would explode our of the glass tube if it became too excited, the man would reach the bubbling over point.

Then suddenly the girl would juiTip up and make a mad dash to her dressing room. A couple of enlisted men— in excellent physical shape —almost made it, only to have the dressing room door slammed iti their face.

Undaunted they banged on the door with closed fists and wrenched at the knob. But like the lady hen who chose death to dishonor, the stripper was answering no knocks, believing it was something other than opportunity at her door.

The stripper was safe. These bouncers knew their job. Only when a fight became too rowdy would they oust tlie participants.

More than once they let the sluggers battle it out inside the club. The stool added to her iieight. It was a two-way proposition.

Soldiers sometimes would be lined up outside wniting their turn to make a deal with a gid on the inside.

The major- type proposition seemed to run something like this: The length of rime began at fifteen minutes, with an increasing pay scale for additional time.

In this regard, "Ma" was little dif- ferent from the operators of any other houses of physical enjoyment. Where she differed primarily was in the field of entertain- ment.

No one disputed "Ma" when she said she gave her customers the best floor shows in Phcnix City. It was intoxicating stuff. It made even women clients drunk occasionally and they would jump on-stagc and begin their own amateurish form of disrobing.

This, in its way, wa. Once in a while "Ala" would pay the neophyte ten dollars. Why, sir, her place was so clean that church groups visited her weekly, soliciting donations.

All the customers would pitch in happily and so joyous was "Ma" over the visit that she would toss in a dollar herself. If any of the cHents could remember such a visit, they probably thought it was all part of the entertainment.

The stage where the strippers put on their acts: Up-front rabies were right alongside. An ex- so Phenix City cited customer sometimes had to be restrained from vaulting to the platform and helping the stripper along the way.

The other portions of the shows were the ordinary honky- tonk circuit riders: They would tap dance or put their all into a song of years ago.

But it was center stage for the old war horses. At least for a fleeting spell they could live again in what had been but was no more.

To this extent, "Ma" was a kindly soul. All she wanted was for her customers to have a good time. That, and the major portion from their wallets.

To help accomplish tfie latter, there was a game room at the jomt. The croupiers would become tired of it all by then and turn on the heat. It was in an old and dirty house, nestled back among some residences on a dirt road, its squalor hidden by flickering lights and the darkness of the night.

A neon arrow, which blinked off and on, indicated the trail to passersby on the paved road a quarter of a mile distant.

Peering over the tops of her spectacles in a quizzical manner, wearing a plain white uniform, "Ma" looked just like a practical nurse and if there was one thing "Ma" was, it was pracdcal.

She had the task of feeding, housing, clothingj and training the young ones until she remarried. With her brand-spanking- new husband, "Ma" went to New Orleans and there she took her apprenticeship in night clubbery.

She liked what she saw and learned, and upon returning to Phenix City, de- cided that was the life for her. Up went the club and in went "Ma" as the proprietres, on July 14, She liked what she had so much that she never visited any other booze spots in Phenix except the Lasso Club, where her sister competed with her.

The sister, Ada Eberhart, was never the showman "Ma" was. It was haunted, by a special type of human flotsam who made their homes in the gutters.

Unhke "Ma" who was always prim and soft-spoken, Ada was a dour-faced woman who got her kicks from vials and bottles. Even after the padlock was on the door, the veranda served as a favorite gathering place for the hop crowd.

As the clean-up hit Phenis City, the depression hit "Ma. It was a sad time. Her faith in the future of her beloved Phenix never wavered, even in the dark hours when she peered through the barred door of the jail.

They were very strict. Sitting next to her little granddaughter, "Ma" waved as the vehicle moved out into the street and carried her to her farm.

Weeks later she breathed a soulful sigh of relief when the charge against her wa. Justice, "Ma" figured, was triumphant. Her years of hard work, she said, had done nothing more than provide her with a living.

She claimed to be "flat broke," liaving only forty-seven cents. One of her daughters died in a drunken stupor in bed.

The death of another child is lost in time. Of her living children, "Ala" indicates a preference for her son, a chip off the o!

He has a job exactly like hers, in Reno. He was undoubtedly surprised. The date was September, , and Representative Cole must have sup- posed that the three-year statue of hmitations had run out on his former occupation as silent partner in a "bug" house.

Lee and Hughes, investigating for the Alabama National Guard, thought differently, but they did not inform Mr, Cole of their opinions. Cole, quite certain he was in the clear, spoke freely of his operations.

The Representative was a quiet man who also ran a restaurant in PhenLx Citv. He lived near the Russell-Lee County line, in the country where it was nice and quiet.

His home was modern, ranc! Despite his facade of gentility. Cole did not fool all of the people all of the time. In a public hearing, a woman had identified him as a "bug" operator, A "bug" operator is one who runs or owns a lottery house.

He can bet one penny, a thousand dollars, or as much more as the individual house will allow. The player may win fabulous amounts-S25 on a five cent bet, for instance.

It is the odds which make the game so impelling. All the player need do is give his money to a "writer" who calls on him at home or at work, and then the player writes down three numbers from zero to nine.

A new game is played daily, five days a week. The player knows by nightfall whether his three numbers, in the order he selected them, are the winning combination.

Practically every bug player in the area chose the numbers " Nevertheless, soon they were back at the old stands. Winning numbers generally are selected in one of three ways.

The most common method in Phenix for yean was to take the stock and bond quotations from the New York Stock Exchange each afternoon.

Any series of three num- bers could be designated as winners. Since the quotations run in seven figures, it was customary that the second, third, and founh digits from the left would be the correct choice, or, the second and third numbers in one quotation, and the third in the second quotation.

Two obvious advantages came to the player under this selection system. He could read the results, for himself, in the final editions of the afternoon papers, and — even more important — there was no way for the house to fix the game.

There was a way for players to rig a selection, though. In the early days the operators had to learn by experience to stop selling tickets a half-hour before the stock market closed.

They became educated the hard way. An out-of- town player with telephone connections to the New York Stock Exchange would telephone the Phenix City houses within minutes after the market closed.

Unknown to the bugmen, he had the winning numbers before he placed his bet. He was forced to pay two sets of winners for the day. Winners can be chosen by the spin of a wheel or the toss of a special die, numbered from zero to nine.

Three spins of the wheel or three tosses of the die produce the three lucky numbers. Operators liked these arrangements because either is easy to fix.

Still another system is the dropping of numbered balls into a cloth sack. The operator reaches in the sack and pulls out three balls. But the operator wUi have held out the numbers which have been heavily played, saving himself a big pay- off.

He can also conceal numbered balls in a hidden com- panment within the bag. The bug is a vicious racket. They play It daily. Even people on relief have invested in the bug from their tiny income.

He gets so excited he invites all his friends and neighbors in to celebrate and the slush fund is gone in a wild melee of festivities.

In addition, the winner in Alabama has paid his writer five per cent of his winnings while a Georgia winner paid his agent ten per cent.

Principal victims of the hug in the South are the Negroes. S6 Pbenix City They, also, were the primary targets of another lottery racket.

Operators boosted their income by selling dream books for fifty cents to one dollar. Bug players— like all gamblers— are notoriously superstitious, which explains why so many chose the " Circus.

The number they select that day is the one abreast of the dream classification in the book. When Cole was detained at the city jail by Lee and Hughes, they talked for some hours.

Since even the writers needed federal gambling stamps, Hughes checked federal records to obtain names and addresses of purchasers.

The writer could be used as a witness against the big man himself. A problem, which could have become a major obstacle, presented itself.

They feared their information would incriminate them. Guardsmen searched lawbooks until they found a section which pennitted a writer to appear before the Grand jury and receive personal im- munity from prosecution.

With this law available, Hughes already had the goods on Cole before he started talking with him. September, said Cole, was the month in which the federal stamp liad become effective and that is when he quit the profession.

Cole was in error, but eventually the Guard dropped the lottery count. Cole paid a fine on a charge of leasing premises for gambling purposes.

The federal stamp did not go into operation until November 1, Cole said he had been a silent panner in "The Old Reliable Lottery.

He relied upon his partners, W, C. Roney and Lawrence Roney, father and son, to notify him daily of his profit and to deposit his share to his account in the bank.

The Old Reliable was one of seven lottery houses, of the bigger variety, going full blast in Phenix City. Shepherd and Mat- thews moved out of the Ritz and A.

Buck Billingsley moved in with his home-made organization. Yarbrough, on the other hand, was the old pro himself. It was Yarbrough, too, who first taught Matthews the tricks with dice and cards that were to make him rich before he was twenty-five.

Now sick and o[d, Yarbrough is in a semi-retired status. Cancer has eaten away much of his nose and face, and he wears a mass of bandages as he sits at his cash register in the cafe.

His operation with McCoUister in the lonery project was motivated, in all probability, by nostalgia. Cole spent the night of his arrest in the city jail.

Through his generosity, he hoped to get shed of the drunks who might keep him awake. Unfortunately for Cole, about two a. As soon as the doors clanged behind him, he sat down on a coc and starred a game of poker.

He once donated 15, to his church. On another occasion, he gave S to the principal of a school with which to buy lunches for underprivileged children.

Of all the ilhcit operations in Phenix City, lotter -- was far and away the most profitable, the biggest, and the easiest. That was not representative.

Usually the loot did not nm so high. A peculiarity about the lottery operators was that they kept books. They held onto ticket stubs and itemized in derail the amounts they paid to writers on commission.

As did most of the underworld in Phenix City, the operators suffered from that not-so-strange disease among crooks: The malady could be labeled Al Caponitisi non-contagious, non-infectious, but oh-so-permanent, when it takes hold.

Elaborate records were discovered intact. There were large stacks of ledgers, running from current statistics back for several years.

Entries chronicled even minute details of the million dollar business blue-printed by a chief bully-boy, C. Head Revel, and his sometime partner, George Davis, Sr, The amount each writer earned in the past year was entered under his name, and federal withholding taxes were paid on income shown.

One hundred writers worked for the house. A balance sheet for one year shelved a gross income from lottery just shy of a million dollars.

Sharing in the consignment was George Davis, Jr. On the morning of the raid at Tlie Grocery, the elder Davjs, bloated and doped, rocked back and forth on a high stool.

He spoke not a word and did not appear to be in- terested in what was going on. In addition to lottery and gambling equipment uncovered, there were ten adding machines and several money counters in the so-called grocery.

A refrigerator in one of the gambling rooms contained hypodermic needles and smatf, empty glass bottles. Nearly four hundred doUars in bent coins had been thrown into boxes, apparently taken from slot machines and tossed aside to avoid re-use.

Loose twenty dollar bills were stuffed into envelopes. A file, marked "Revel Amusement Company," contained data on slot machines and juke boxes owned by the com- pany, which was separate from The Metropolitan.

The docu- 60 PiiENix City ments indicared the type of suacliine, its locstion, and monthly receipts gained from each. Several weapons, including a sawed-off shotgun, were seized.

So tlie crooks kept books in order to report and pay an income tax. As a result, the treasury men have been working Phenk City for some years.

Nevertheless, the government is practically certain to slap income tax evasion warrants against more nienibers of the fraternity. Tax liens, totaling thousands of dollars, already have been assessed against upper bracket overlords.

Their troubles were only beginning. They said they had worked out a deal with the govern- ment. According to Godwin, St. But both Senior and Junior were charged in the clean-up with fourty-four counts of operating a lottery.

Under Alabama law, conviction on one count carries a fine, but the judge can add up to twelve months at hard labor if he desires. Second and subsequent convictions carry mandatory jail sentences of from six to twelve months.

They saw clean-up juries passing out heavy sentences and saw that the rime had come for them to act. They tried to make another deal, this time With the state.

Davis, Sr, offered to serve time, to plead guilty, if the prosecution would leave his son at home to run the lawful businesses. The state would not accept.

By now, Davis, Sr. This happened a few minutes past midnight, the morning of October Patterson was in his office talking with Private Investigator Fred Bodeker of Birmingham, and one of the authors, when his telephone rang.

His wife was on the phone, giving him a number to call back. Patterson dialed the number and a man answered im- mediately. For a few minutes Patterson listened, then said, "Wait a minute.

Should I see him? It took Davis not more than ftve minutes to arrive. Patterson told the National Guardsman at his door to search the man before he was admitted.

The pudgy, snaggled-tooth, cigar-smoking Davis kept Pat- terson tied up for one hour and fifteen minutes. Amazed by the visit from Davis, Patterson promised him nothing.

He eventually was given two years, to be served after Godwin Davis, Jr. He had his own theory on the tie-up between gamblers and politicians.

Most cops, he said, turn crooked because of greed or selfishness. On election day, he continued, a man was arrested for voting in more than one box.

Fonhwithj he went to see the mayor and inquired on what charges the man had been arrested. The Metropolitan Lottery furnished the Davises and the Revels a luxurious living for years.

The relationships between the families were complex. The partnership employed seventy writers and enjoyed a yearly gross income of nearly 1 1,, The case is important for another reason for it put on the public record the close ties between a city commissioner ;md the underworld.

Gloria Floyd Davis was the daughter of Dr. Seth Floyd, a city commissioner whose father also had been on the com- mission. Here was a direct family connection between a public official and a public underworld official.

Revel admitted, while testifying in the case, that he was a close friend of Dr. Gloria and Bubba married on May 5, After three ;ind a half year?

She had been married twice previously and had one child by her first husband, and one child by Bubba. The testimony is that of Gloria, being questioned by her attorney, John Patterson: Yes, he had me keep the books and tend to every- thing to see that it was working all right.

Gambling was the mn of the mill affair in the places about which she testified. He said the George T. This of course, was before Revel usurped the Met.

SO in , Revel said, reading from official records of the company. He said Bubba received Si 7,2 Davis for unpaid taxes. A Phcni-x City lawyer, James 1 1.

Caldwell, who since the clean-up has become solicitor, testified as an expert wit- ness in accounting. Caldwell said this could be done.

Revel told of the ill feel- ings under cross-examination by Attorney Roy Stnich, the city attorney who was representing Bubba.

Revel decided he wanted to get out and told Sr. Johnnie Benefield was at the wheel. The fourth man was thought to be Revel. They tied up the nightwatchman and a guest, loaded the three safes onto the truck and drove away into the night.

That was how Revel got his share. Revel was plotting how he could, alone, control the rackets. He went to work on Senior, getting the old man on dope until Davis was in no condition to match wits with Revel, then he convinced Senior that Junior was steahng from the company.

Out went Junior and Revel took over The Met almost completely. Revel built The Metropolitan into a huge organization, which he ran alone the last few years before Albert Patterson was killed.

He, along with the Godwin Davis outfit and the Hoyt Shepherd-Jimmy Matthews combine, was one of the few bug operators to gross over a million dollars a year on the numbers racket.

Out of this income, the operators paid not only the winners but usually paid the fines and bonds and hired lawyers for their writers who were picked up by the police.

A writer for A. Bad feelings, caused by the lottery, developed among the operators. Besides the Davis-Revel clambake, Shepherd and Matthews had their eye on another competitor, Pete Hargetc, whose operations at one time were the largest in the area.

Popping in "pieces" on selected points with a view toward forming 3-in-a-row horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Multiple jumps checker-like are permitted.

Usually, one additional point. Game may be won by being the first to make a three-in-a-row formation; forming two or three such before opponent; blocking opponent; and, reducing opponent to two pieces only.

Each player brings in one piece on any vacant point. Moving and Jumping--pieces may be moved along lines in any direction and make checker-type jumps.

Pieces are designated "O" and "X" and take on the additional definition of the point occupied, i. Thus, O1-O3 indicates a jump over piece at O2.

If Mach is not started with the first command, the move is not implemented. On the other hand, if Mach is not stopped before the "Run" is implemented, it keeps going.

This variation encompasses all the ramifications, challenges, frustrations, and rewards involved in the quantitative and qualitative transfer of light waves from one position to another with a view toward forming certain vectorial patterns, which opponent cannot duplicate.

Object of the game is to assign opponent a "run" consisting of movements of the light to 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or more contact points and to challenge a correct response within a given time frame.

The game matrix consists of 8 paths, 3 ringed ranges, 24 contact points and a centorium. Playing pieces are, in fact, colored light waves that are programmed to move along any of the 8 paths to selected contact points.

Although the primary focus is visual color and direction , aural elements augment the aesthetic dimensions of the game. To initiate play, one player programs a "run" which is flashed and "held" on the screen for 10 seconds.

An attempt is then made by opponent to repeat the "run" exactly. The player may make one or more attempts to do so, seeing that score is a function of the number of "tries" and amount of time used to duplicate a given number of "runs".

These four variants exemplify the flexibility of vectorial and MachThink Mancala-like concepts in creating new games, converting puzzles to games and in improving ancient games in the public domain.

The process used to develop the simulated scenario capability involves several technical procedures which I will attempt to describe for practioners in the field of game design.

The procedures involved are encompassed in the following flowchart: As illustrated in the flowchart, the sequence of operations and procedures employed in the development of a Mancala-like simulation game by the process of the present invention first involves in-depth study of the parameters, rules, and regulations of the subject matter to be treated.

Next, the playing fields and structural formats discussed hereintofore must all be evaluated as to the specific procedural requirements and artistic objectives.

The artistic design function will involve experimental mock-ups using readily identified symbolic items playing field, court, balls, bats, athletes, charts, etc.

This procedure is the first part of a series of operations which must be undertaken to establish claims to the simulation.

After the setting or stage for the playing field is established, the next step involves the coloring and decoration of the playing pieces poker chips, counters, tokens, coins, cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc.

The classification of pieces is dictated by the requirements of the subject matter. The general classification of pieces are of two kinds, as stated: These special pieces are of three types: The range of values assigned to playing pieces relates to the desired total score at the end of play.

Usually a ratio of 1: The successful design of the playing field as regards functional as well as esthetic aspects and the playing pieces represent the two most important operations of the game simulation process.

Thereafter, the production of a plurality of playing cards bearing instructions which impact favorably and unfavorably on the final outcome or score is undertaken.

These instructions introduce an element of "chance" or "luck" into what are, essentially, games of wit and cunning, i. Carded instructions usually relate to one of these scenarios--time wasting or value reduction or value increase.

For example, in the "Stock Exchange" simulation game, a card might instruct a player who has just completed a capturing deal to "call and chair an important board meeting, limited to 30 seconds.

The games of the invention usually involve side bets--with play money. In order to initiate and increase wagers, a doubling device is necessary.

The "wheel-of-fortune" illustrated is highly recommended in that it is capable of increasing bets from 2 to times the initial amount.

When the doubler is not in play it is placed flat on its face. When it is in play it is placed on its side with the number uppermost representing the level of doubling attained.

Betting is not compulsory in most games and no penalties are imposed if a player declines an offer to "double up. These procedures complete the initial set of operations which must be performed before a simulation or scenario game may be created.

The next steps of the process relate to "test-runs" leading to the establishment of "time-frames" for Mach-1 speed of performance, and compilation of rules of play.

Notation of each move and outcome of test games must be made via usage of a descriptive notation system with a view to evaluating and reevaluating various set-ups, moves, and outcomes.

The objects of the test runs are to establish the following: Where Mach-1 time recording is concerned the game case of the process with its separate built-in timing devices, is most appropriate.

This feature, along with the four-way storage capability, makes it one of the best though not the only method of embodying Mancala and Mancala-like games.

Similar games, as well as other non-Mancala-like games; e. Method of Play--rules of the game to ensure realistic reference points vis-a-vis co-relationships between the game and subject matter treated.

The latter may be classified under four main headings:. Advertisements--In this grouping the primary focus of the game is to promote its corporate or institutional sponsor s.

A game developed for say a bank or life insurance company would fall in this category. Several sets are usually provided. In these instances the structural elements and behavorial dimensions are adapted to meet the constraints and objects of the medium.

In order to master the diverse applications of the process the language of Machcala must be mastered. See definitions of technical terms as stated hereintofore.

Elements of the Matrix: The cells, switch cells, centerfield or transactions area, pay-off or value-line, as illustrated and defined. Stage or field of play, bar point or ridge, left and right homeboard, storage units, timers, as illustrated and defined.

The structural and behavioral flexibilities of the process led to perfection of its capability to "simulate" innumerable "scenarios.

The following examples are provided to show how the principles and procedures of the process were used in respect to the above-cited claim.

They serve to exemplify the limitless scope of the invention without in any way limiting its possibilities. The scenario depicted relates to competition for medals during the course of the Olympics.

There are graphics of selected major events in each cell of the receptacle areas, together with the five rings representing the official Olympic symbol.

The first two horizontal rows on either side of the center court area represent the front or "Winter" Olympics; the third row represents the back or "Summer" Olympics.

The initial set-up calls for four value pieces Gold, Silver, Bronze, and White worth 3, 2, 1, and 0 points respectively , in the designated set-up calls of the front and back games.

Each player then places one athlete Mach in each loaded cell. When the set-up is completed there will be 16 loaded cells with a total of 84 point and special pieces on each side.

In that only the athletes and the Spirit of Olympia can effect capture, the front game is played in the usual Machcala MRII mode with one player lifting all the pieces in any cell of the first two rows and dealing one in successive cells moving clockwise.

All value pieces captured are taken off and stored. Bonus captures are earned as described hereintofore for the Stock Xchange game.

The first capture, however, must be an en prise pair of 2, 3 or 4 pieces. All cells are "in competition". The back game is played in the usual MXI manner with captures of one, two, or three medals by athletes and the Spirit-of-Olympia.

If the cell next to the captured cell is loaded with a total of two, three, or four chips and if there are other cells contiguous to and continuous with that cell also loaded with two, three, or four chips, all these conjoined cells are captured in addition to the cell from which capture was first made.

The game ends when all value pieces have been captured even if specials are still in play. Mach-1 time frame is fifteen minutes, based on the level of proficiency achieved by above-average players.

Numbers on the chips represent runs scorable 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this game. The scenario depicted involves two teams competing at "test" or "speed" cricket to ascertain which will be the higher scorer when the match one or two innings ends.

The "batting" team sets up with five value runs pieces and one Mach Batsman in each of the ten back row cells.

The "fielding" team places five "runs" chips and one Mach "Bowler" in each of the ten back row cells. Hat-Trick are then entered in any two loaded cells.

Rules for moving and capturing are similar to above-described Machcala "Relay" two-row front games. However, the limitation rule is waived and all captures made are scored before their respective wicket numbered Th object of the game for the team at bat is to score as many runs per wicket as possible before the team fielding captures ten wickets, which is to say, ten special batsmen pieces, and "outs" the opponent.

If the team fielding fails to capture ten wickets before all the runs value chips have been "scored" captured , then the game is set up again and continued until the fielding team has captured ten wickets.

The fielding team then "goes to bat" and the winning side is that which scores most runs. Redeployment and re-entry rules apply.

Runs value chips captured are disregarded by the "fielding side". Mach-1 is ten minutes when played at above-average speed. The scenario involves two players competing in a one set club match six suits.

Colored poker chips are used as playing pieces not shown and bear indicia representing a tennis ball with the respective point won in the center of the chip.

Thus, the red chip represents "15", the value of the first point scored in tennis; the blue chip represents "30", the second point scored; the silver chip represents "40", the third point scored; and the gold chip represents "game", the fourth and last point scored.

The initial set-up calls for four point chips to be placed in each cell together with one Mach "player".

Big Mach is called "Ace," Rex is the Umpire. Only "players" may score points, i. Each suit counts as one game toward the total of six for the set.

Method of capturing in this game is similar to that for MXI games, i. More than one round may be required to complete the set.

Mach-1 time frame is 10 minutes and earns no bonus. Mach-0 earns a penalty of minus one game. The scenario involves "rushing stars" of a National Football League team attempting to break "the record" of yards in a game.

Each of the "point" pieces represents the number of yards gained or lost on a rush, as follows: Each gold chip represents a "first down" or 10 yards; the silver chip represents a "good gain" of 5 yards; the blue chip represents a "short gain" of 3 yards; the white chip represents a "gain" of 2 yards; and the red chip represents "no gain or loss".

A player would therefore have to win at least one half of the total yardage in the game at M-1 speed in order to equal the record of yards.

There are 20 Machs in this game. Big Mach is called "Superstar" and Rex is the "referee". Mach-1 time frame for this game is 10 minutes and capture is made in MX-I mode, as prescribed.

The chips are three, two, and one point baskets. The initial set-up may be three two-pointers and one three-pointer per cell, or two "two-pointers", one "three-pointer", and one "one-pointer" chip in each cell.

Rex is the referee. There is a total of points, depending on set-up used. When this total is increased by M-1 bonus a grand total score of points for both teams is possible.

The game is played in the MXI mode described. The game depicted is American Soccer. The scenario involves two teams "Home" and "Away" engaged in a series of 8 matches during the course of the entire season.

The eight games played by each team is indicated on the value-line area. There are three different kinds of point chips--"shots" which are worth zero point; "assists" worth zero point; and goals worth two points.

The initial set up calls for one "shot", one "assist" and "two goals" in each cell Match. Shots and assists pieces taken may be discarded seeing that they have no value.

At the end of the game with all point chips captured a determination is made as to the winner or loser of each of the 8 matches in what is called the "face-off" or "show-down" phase of play.

The team with most goals scored in a match wins that match and scores two points. If the number of goals scored is the same for both sides, the match is said to be drawn and scores one point each.

A match in which no goal is scored by either side is disregarded. Capture in this game is from any of the eight calls games per MX-1 rules.

Mach-1 time frame determined by testing above-average -level players was established at 10 minutes. The game simulated is Casino Roulette.

Captures have varying pay-off values as indicated by the value-line compartments with "pay-off" of times the amount captured.

There are 16 Machs in this game. The object of the game is to win as much money as possible with transactions settled with play dough after each capture.

Mode of play as per MX-1 rules. Mach-1 speed is 10 minutes. The game simulated is the well-known casino game Baccarat. The pieces are poler chips or Machcala cards with symbolic indicia representing two decks of playing cards imprinted on only one face.

At the start the cards are shuffled and dealt four per cell. Machs are optional in this game. Captures, in usual MXI mode, are used to form "hands" in accordance with the established rules which govern play for baccarat and chemin-de-fer.

When scoring the value of a hand two or three cards , tens are ignored. Thus, the highest possible score for a hand is 9 since face cards and tens are scored as 0, aces as 1, and any other numerical card at its face value.

Since each capture is used to form a hand, several hands would have been formed and put aside when all the point cards have been captured and the game ends.

Hands are then "shown" one set at a time and compared in a "showdown" phase. The player with the best hands in each "show down" scores 3 points for a win natural 8 or 9 count , 2 points for a regular win and one point for a "stand-off".

These hands would be scored as "automatic" winners when shown, Mach-1 time frame is set at ten minutes. Up to eight players may participate in this Machcala Xchange card game variation.

The name of the game rendered is "PrepCenter". Several of these keyboards with different "subject-drills" are included in each "set to form a program and this enables the teacher or parent to drill the child in numerous and diverse areas, e.

Playing counters are different colored chips FIG. The players use these chips, once captured, to "scramble" words or number sequences on the "Scrambleboard" indicated in the center court area FIG.

There are 20 Machs students in play. Play money and questions and answers cards are included as accessories. The student is always rewarded for captures whenever the correct answers are given.

A special feature of this game is its two-face keyboard. It may be seen from FIGS. In all such cases indicia on the faces of the keys represent unitary measures of the subject matter depicted.

The student always "goes against" the drill master teacher, parent, or fellow student. In addition, one variation of PrepCenter lends itself to the use of the fingers as "pieces".

In this variation which depicts Chisenbop methods top row of FIG. It should be noted that although this rendering of "PrepCenter" a Machcala Xchange educational game is on a flat plastic or cardboard surface, it may also be encased FIG.

The game illustrated is one in a series of national and ethnic game simulations which was especially created to focus on the rising expectations and aspirations of minorities in this country.

The name of the game illustrated is "Aframerica" and was specifically developed for 25,, Americans of African descent.

The game simulation scenario relates to the concerted and often tragic efforts of these people--from to to secure full and equal civil rights and economic and social parity.

Two different versions of play were created with each relating to the so-called Black Revolution: In the first version civil rights activists attempt to raise "bread" funds for the furtherance of The cause; and, in the second, a message "We Shall Overcome" is formed with captured pieces for highest point score.

Pieces are chips or small machcala cards bearing photographs of well-known black heroes. Educational material providing additional information on each hero is included on one face of the chance cards.

Playing pieces are of different colors gold, silver, blue, red and numbered to indicate different values of similar colored pieces. They are also "lettered" to facilitate playing the scrambled-message variation called "We shall overcome".

The set-up requires four point pieces and one special called "Civil Rights Activist" in each cell. Big Mach is called "Leader" and Rex is called "Klan".

Capture is in the usual Machcala one-row mode with the winner being the player a to collect the most money "bread" for The Cause or b formation of the message "We shall overcome.

Play money is used to settle transactions and the chance cards are drawn following a move that ends in capture. The educational value of the game is thus tremendously enhanced by this rich, historical feature.

It is of interest to note that this game set FIG. In that all games included in said system are of African origin, the appeal to millions of Black families in this country and abroad will be extremely high and socially significant.

The packaging approach also results in prospective owners securing a wide range of first-rate games up to six at tremendous savings in costs.

It also lends itself to structural variations in the various formats discussed hereintofore. In order to further illustrate the merits of the inventions, I will now describe subject matters which have been treated as "Series" seeing that several depictions were required to adequately cover their diversity.

These Simulation series as against single subject treatment would, of course, include several of the above game products; e. Although these further examples are not illustrated, it will be readily seen that they evidence the successful application of the game design and simulation process to a potentially limitless range of subject matters.

Like the basic game of the invention, Machcala Stock Exchange and its variations hereintofore described, these further examples do not in any way depart from the scope of my invention but only serve to exemplify it:.

This series include patriotic games which are usually encased on the MXI-6 thru MXI matrices with center court design depicting the geo-physical map outline of the target nation and playing pieces representing four or more major national monuments, symbols or heroes.

The MACH-1 time frame is ten minutes. A special feature of these games is the inclusion of advertising spots and musical buttons which play the "anthem" after a designated number of suits have been formed.

In particular, a version called "American Anthem: A Machcala Xchange Game" is encased on the MXI-8 matrix with different colored pieces bearing representation of four great monuments: The object of the game is to capture pieces and form four-piece suits--trios, pairs or quads.

A "hand" of four pieces is allowed. Captured pieces not so used are discarded. MACH-1 is 10 minutes. Subject depicted is a big city of a great nation.

Game is encased on MX-6 through MX matrices with center court design depicting the sky line or map of the city treated. Value pieces are of different colors, lettered and numbered as to value, and bear photographs of monuments of the city.

All captured pieces are used to spell out the sentimental statement: In particular, the game called "I Love New York: A Machcala Xchange Game" is encased on a MXI-8 cell matrix with the magnificent skyline of the city in the center court area and a "Big Apple" at the center of the ridge.

Letter designations represent all the twelve letters in the statement: MACH-1 time frame is ten minutes. Regular bonus, fines, and rules apply substantially as described for MXI games.

Similar versions of this game have been successfully developed for all major American and foreign cities with population in excess of ,, e. This series of Machcala Xchange games simulate religious subjects.

Usually the center court depicts a critical imagery of the subject treated. Pieces are machcala-cards or chips bearing indicia relating to the subject matter with designated values, powers and roles.

In particular, the game called "The Ten Commandments: The pieces in the game are machcala-cards of four different colors gold, silver, blue, white with one of the ten commandments and its particular value on each face.

The initial set-up requires five point pieces commandments in each cell. The object of the game is to capture pieces and form one or more ten-piece suit spread representing the ten commandments--to earn highest score.

The game ends when all value pieces have been captured. Chance cards are included with Biblical questions and are picked after each capture. MACH-1 is ten minutes.

Play moving, capturing, etc. Several other religious subjects have been treated, e. The games of this series are directed primarily to students of military strategy and war games buffs.

Various sized matrices may be used with the entire playing area or center court only decorated to represent the field of battle or negotiation.

The point pieces depict the objects or goals being fought for and specials are soldiers Machs , Commanders Big Machs , and Traitor Rex. Pieces chips or cards represent villages whose support is being sought by Machs and Viet Cong forces: The method of play is substantially as described for MRII games.

The object of the game is to command majority support. Another subject treated relates to the efforts of several enlightened world leaders to reduce the threats of nuclear warfare.

The game is called "S. A Machcala Xchange Disarmament Game". In this version, the center court is a "negotiating" table MXI-8 cell matrix and different colored pieces represent ICBMs, bombers, submarines, and tanks valued at 1,, , , points each.

Capture is in the usual mode by the Machs negotiators and are used to form four-piece suits which can then be "withdrawn" at twice face value.

The object of the game is to withdraw as much material as possible and so reduce the threat of nuclear warfare. The game is played substantially as described for MXI games.

Games in this series depict well-known field and court games substantially as described hereintofore. In addition to these examples, a game called "Baseball: A Machcala sports "simulation", is treated as follows: The scenario depicted is one of five playoff games in the World Series.

The game is encased on a MRII-9 cell matrix with the entire playing area decorated to depict a section of the baseball field first, second, and third bases, and also home plate.

The nine cells represent a stylized scoreboard for each inning. The value-line designates these cells as first thru ninth innings. There are 72 point pieces in the game: The 22 specials are players Machs , player-coach Big Mach , and umpire Rex.

The initial set-up calls for four point pieces and one player in each cell. All captures are effected in the prescribed MRII manner and are accumulated directly before the respective innings in which "hits" were made.

Another well-known sport depicted in this series is "Grand Prix" Racing. In this sports simulation game--rendered on the MXI cell matrix, the center court design depicts part of a race track.

The point pieces colored gold, silver, blue, red are first, second, third, and fourth place finishes worth 4, 3, 2, and 1 points respectively.

Other well-known sports and sporting events which lend themselves to similar treatment are Horseracing, Golf, Bowling, Ice Hockey, Boxing, Wrestling, Handball, Squash, etc.

Some depictions are represented by two renditions: These games depict national and statewide campaigns, congressional debates, and other politically-related subjects on various matrices.

In particular, a game called "Presidential Campaign: A Machcala Relay Game" simulates U. Presidential campaign, which occurs every four years, on an MRIV matrix.

The value-line is not in play and the total playing field is a montage of the 50 states. Value pieces represent "registration" for each state and bear indicia stating percentage and number of total votes cast in that state in the last presidential election.

Percentages of votes cast are approximated as follows: The object of the game is to win the majority state votes and get elected "President of the United States.

MACH-1 is 15 minutes. Chance cards are used which increase or decrease number of votes won. All other election campaigns are treated in this series--senatorial, congressional, gubernatorial, county and local--for this and other nations.

Games in this series pay homage to the greatest classical games of all times, incorporating their essential features with the "relay" and "Xchange" methods.

The focus is on games which were once popular in ancient civilizations dating back as far as B. Some of the games included in this series are: In particular, a game in this series called "Hana-Cala: A Machcala Xchange game", successfully incorporates the methods of a popular Japanese flower-card game, "Hana-Awase" or "Hache-Hache" with those of Machcala games, Hana-Cala is rendered on an encased MXI-6 circular matrix with an extended center court or "boneyard" area which is colored red and white.

There is no value line and the twelve cells representing months of the year are decorated with replicas of the glory, life, pennant and nature cards.

There are no Machs in the game. The point cards in the deck are divided into twelve suits of 4 cards each. There are 5 glory cards worth 20 points each; 9 life cards worth 10 points each; 10 pennant cards worth 5 points each; and 24 nature cards worth 1 point each.

The sum of the values of the 48 point cards in each deck is The initial set-up calls for 4 cards in each cell after shuffling both decks.

In addition, 4 cards are dealt as "hand" to each player, 8 cards as "Table", and the remainder put aside as "Stock". The object of the game is to capture cards in the usual MXI mode and use said cards to "take" from the table in the manner of the well-known card game of Casino.

A game usually consists of four seasons. Hana-Cala is a beautiful family game and is recommended for two to four players.

Another game in this "Duets" series is called "Gammoncala: A Machcala Xchange game. Cells are numbered and pieces are entered based on the outcome of rolling 2 dice.

Phase II dealing moves are also determined by the roll of 2 dice as in Phase I. Rolls--in both Phases I and II determine the cell or set of chips therein and may be read in several different ways: Capture is in the regular MX-1 mode.

Another rendition in this series is called Cala-Chess. Value allocation is as follows: Mach-1 is 15 minutes and earns a bonus of 10 points.

Mach-0 earns no bonus. Games in this series depict academic or instructional subject matters. The value-line assigns grades earned as follows: The scenario depicted relates to the academic efforts of college or high school students to graduate with "Laude"--Summa, Magna, or Cum.

It is of interest to note that several game authorities call Mancala games "African Chess. Other games in this series address the problem of improving teaching and training methods and devices in game-related scenarios.

For instance, a game called "Components: A Machcala Xchange Game" aka "Comparts" is played on various sized and shaped MX matrices with point pieces poker chips or machcala-cards bearing indicia which represent pictures of various component parts of the subject matter.

Only technical subjects are treated in the series e. Players capture and form "sets" comprising inter-related parts for points score as prescribed.

The teaching value of games in this series is extremely significant in view of the pleasure brought to the learning process during or after formal training hours.

Bingo, lotto, slot machine, craps, blackjack, and other games are treated in this series. The 64 point pieces are numbered 1 to Captured pieces are used to "mark" the bingo cards.

Object of the game is to get "5-in-a-row" on both cards. A "short" game requires only two such formations; a "long" game may require four or more such, as decided upon by the players.

MACH-1 for the "short" game is 5 minutes. A Machcala Xchange Game. The object of the game is to capture value pieces and use said captures to form three or four-piece suits for cash pay-off at twice face value of suits formed.

MACH-1 is 10 minutes and the usual bonus for speed applies. This game may also be rendered in electronic computer-based formats as described hereintofore.

Another game in this series, called "CAsino-cala: A Mancala Xchange card game," successfully adapts Machcala Xchange methods to the playing of this well-known card game.

We used the MXI-8 matrix--without value-line. A miniature deck of regular playing cards is used. The initial set-up calls for 4 cards in each of the 16 cells.

Four extra cards are added to the deck: Capture is in the usual MXI manner with cards won used to "take" from the "Table" in simular manner to the traditional card game.

Games in this series depict the operations of corporate and eleemosynary institutions. Playing pieces are different colored chips bearing indicia which represent 1, 2, 3, or 4 such systems sold by reps.

MACH-1 is ten minutes and the game is played substantially as described for MXI accumulation games including accessories--chance cards and play money.

In this scenario, two dealers compete to sell more GM cars for the year. The object of the game is to maximize sales.

Chance cards bear instructions impacting favorably or unfavorably on the financial position of players. The game is played substantially as prescribed for MXI games.

Another game in this series is called "Big Mac: Gold chips are Big Macs worth 4 points; silver chips are french fries worth 3 points; blue chips are apple pies worth 2 points; and red chips are coca colas or milkshakes worth 1 point.

The game is aimed at young players and the object is to capture point pieces and attempt to form 2, 3, and 4 piece suits representing a full "meal".

Each "meal" must have a coke or milkshake to qualify for score at twice the face value. Discarded pieces are scored at face value. Chance cards are optional.

These games depict very popular fads and hobbies on various MX game matrices and illustrate additional utilization of the MX simulation process.

Book reading, theatre, dancing, jogging, birthdays, Christmas season, philately, numismatics, and other hobbies-related subjects are all treated in this series.

In particular, the game called "Xmas Fever: The center court is decorated with a montage of desirable Christmas presents. The 64 point pieces are colored gold, silver, blue, and red with the photo of an attractive gift imprinted on one face.

The value of each gift is determined by the color of the chip: There are 16 Machs in play. Big Mach is called "Santa" and Rex is called "Scrooge".

The object of the game is to accumulate the most valuable set of gifts. Another game called "Disco Fever: The center court is designed to represent a dance floor with several dancers executing popular steps.

The point pieces are gold, silver, blue, and red machcala-cards with different types of dances depicted. The object is to capture cards and form 4-piece "dance suites" for double face value.

The game is usually played to loud dance music and with conviviality. Games in this series depict occult, astrological, and psychic subject matters.

In particular, a game called "Zodiac Power: A Machcala Xchange Game" is depicted on a circular MXI-6 matrix decorated with the 12 signs of the zodiac, one in each cell house.

There is no value line. The 48 point pieces chips or cards represent the 12 signs of the zodiac and all pieces are of equal face value.

The point cards are of four different colors with a zodiac sign imprinted on the face of each card. The object of the game is to capture cards and form 4-piece suits for most points.

Suits are scored at twice face value. Chance cards are used for questions and answers which bring about reversals or advantages. Correct answers result in extra points and incorrect answers in reduction.

MACH-1 is set at ten minutes. Methods and rules of play are essentially as described for MXI games. Games of this series relate to the ecological subjects: In particular, a game called "Energism: The center court is decorated with a montage of the major sources of energy-atomic power, electricity, oil, coal, solar power, etc.

The 16 cells are decorated with oil-guzzling equipment and devices. The 64 point pieces are different colored poker chips with indicia symbolizing alternative sources of energy.

Black chips, representing oil, are worth no points; white chips representing atomic power, are worth 5 points; red chips, representing electricity, are worth 10 points; and gold chips, representing solar power, are worth 20 points.

The object of the game is to score as many points as possible for energy conservation. MACH-1 time frame is ten minutes and the game is played with chance cards relating to energy conservation.

Another game in this series called "UFO Encounterama: The value-line is not in play. The scenario relates to UFO sky-watchers scoring points for various kinds of "encounters" experienced.

The chips are of four different colors gold, silver, white, red and bear indica representing flying saucers.

Value assigned for "first level" sightings red chips is 1 point; second level sightings white 2 points each; third level encounter sightings silver 3 points each; and fourth level sightings gold at 4 points each.

A Machcala Relay Game," further illustrates the application of the machcala simulation process. These aliens are bent on conquering Earth before their own planet is destroyed by "the plague.

Point pieces are different colored space ships gold, silver, green, brown, red of equal value. Each piece is assigned the role of a "gunner" ship so there are no Machs.

This game is essentially a test of wits and cunning and the objective is to incapacitate or totally wipeout opponent forces.

In this variation of play, all captures are re-entered and not removed from the field of battle. MACH-1 is 15 minutes and the game ends when one side is reduced to singletons or "totally wiped out.

In addition, another game called "Family Tree: A Machcala Xchange Game" is depicted on an MXI-8 matrix, the center court of the field is designed to represent a genealogical chart.

The value line is not required. The total possible number of years represented by the 64 value cards in suits is tracer-years.

Discards cards not in suit are valued at face. Games in this series depict subject matters relating to the arts, e. Various MX matrices may be used.

In particular, a game called "Art Collection: Center court depicts an art-auction and cells are decorated with representations of well-known paintings and sculptures.

Playing pieces are 64 colored machcala-cards bearing photographs of famous works of art. These pieces are valued as follows: The object of the game is to acquire and "build-up" the most expensive art collection.

Chance cards and play money are optional. In a MXI game called "Numismatix", for instance, the playing court is, in fact, an expensive display case, with the field made of red velvet material.

Initial set-up calls for 5 coins per cell. There are 20 Machs. The game is played for value accumulation substantially as prescribed for MXI games hereintofore.

Games in this series depict Broadway shows, movies, TV networks, dramas, novels, comic strips, spectacular events, etc.

In particular, a game called "TV Network: The point pieces represent "Neilsen Ratings" with indicia stating name of show and ratings as follows: Competing players attempt to maximize ratings during one week of the monthly which determine advertising rates and ranking.

The final score is the average audience per "prime time" show over the seven-day week. The divisor is constant at 28 shows per player.

Captures and rules are as described for MXI games. Games in this series relate to the acquisition and accumulation of property of diverse nature, the operations of business, budget planning, etc.

The "parent" simulation game belongs to this particular series. In addition, a game called "Tax Revolt: The center court depicts people of several states demonstrating against the "burden" of rising taxes.

Cells decorated with a montage of entitlements relating to income producing assets--stocks, certificates, bank accounts, property deeds, trus documents, etc.

The different colored point pieces machcala-cards in the backgame and poker chips in the front game bear indicia stipulating values as follows: For "private property" cards: However, all front game cells are "in competition" and all captures are compulsory.

The object of the game is to maximize wealth and minimize taxes. Tax levy on captures is stated on the value-line: Chance cards are drawn after capturing moves.

Play money is used to settle all transactions. MACH-1 set at 15 or 20 minutes--depending on the level of proficiency attained by the players.

An interesting variation of this game is played with two teams of three or four players, with one player acting as "Captain" and the other players as "Advisors".

The role of the captain changes after each tax season is completed. Four seasons are played. In view of the evidence provided by way of these non-limitative examples, it must be accepted that the objectives of the invention have been achieved vis-a-vis the application of the process to simulate numerous and diverse subject matters.

The resultant variety of "Machcala" simulations and variations will vastly increase the potential appeal to the special interests of large numbers of people.

To that extent, the popularity of the games of the invention--as well as Mancala games--will be greatly enhanced in this country and all over the world.

One of the most important aspect of the present invention is its new and improved playing methods. These are extended to form the basis for a standardized set of rules, glossary and body of procedural guidelines vis-a-vis preferred methods of play.

These rules may be applied to Mancala games in general and the games of the invention in particular. Together with the notation system hereinafter described, they suffice to provide the necessary bases for professional national and international competition.

A vast improvement in the popularity and quality of play of Mancala and Mancala-like games could, therefore, come about as a direct result of this particular aspect of the invention.

These include games in any embodiment--computerized, table top, cardboard, or encasement. Machs are not in play and the Value-line and "switching" are disregarded.

MACH-1 speed bonus though usually unattainable is included. See Levels of Play. There are three levels of professional attainment based on pro-points accumulations at the most advanced stages, as stipulated by the attainment rules of The International Machcala Federation IMF --formation pending.

Certain "calls" of "announcements" are usually used--a 1a "check" and "checkmate. Fine may be imposed or waived, as stipulated.

Fine is compulsory, as defined by rules of play. Value pieces--color coded and otherwise identified as to respective values.

Usually in the ratio of 1: Special pieces--Machs and Big Machs which are empowered to capture; and Rex which negates capture.

Verbal and written forms of communication are not allowed. Sign language and body language may be used.

Audit--check to ensure that there are 42 pieces on each homeboard point pieces and 10 special pieces. Identification of "designated set-up" cells--as defined.

Usually plain, non-shaded cells, as shown in the drawings. Audit--check to ensure that there are 42 playing pieces point pieces and 10 specials--on each homeboard.

There must be, however, at least two loaded cells in play. The opponent need not respond to a rearrangement. After the first "contract" has been fulfilled, all further captures are "open", as defined by the rules of play.

No cell is to be skipped in double-circuit deals which extend back to starting cell or beyond. The deal in an MR "Relay" game may consist of one or more "runs" since the deal does not end until capture is made or the last piece is dropped in an empty cell.

MRIV--Two methods of dealing are allowed: The official name of the moves and switch moves for regular and vectorial variations are as follows: The forward counterclockwise placement maybe followed by a switch in any of directions indicated by the vectors , , and.

Usually limited to first and last "corner" cells or last and penultimate cells at both ends see FIGS. After the first initiation-switch has been made, other switch moves may be from any cell, as per vectorial options indicated by the arrows.

Each new pick-up begins a new "run" with new "switch" options availability. No player may "double-switch"; i. A reverse-switch cannot be followed by another reverse-switch nor a diagonal-switch by another diagonal switch.

In MRIV games a player may switch from any level to another, as indicated by the vectored cells. A player must be "in motion", i.

A set in a vectored cell when lifted must therefore be dealt in the regular forward direction, as prescribed, with the switch option exercisable only after the first drop has been made.

This rule applies to any and all forms and formats. The drop will increase total contents of the cell captured to 2, 3, or 4 pieces. Captures may be limited to 3 or 4 pieces at advanced levels of play.

A set is en prise when both the in-competition cell and the cell before or behind it contain 2, 3, or 4 pieces. First capture is always "declared" as to number of pieces and value.

Bonus capture rules apply. See Opening Contract bid and multiple capture rules. See Particular Bonus prescribed for each game, if any.

Whenever capture is made in a MXI game and the cell to the left of that from which capture has been made also contains 2, 3, or 4 pieces, this set is taken as bonus capture--called multiple capture.

If the other cell immediately adjacent to the "bonus" cell is loaded with 2, 3, or 4, this set is also taken.

Settlement time may be excluded from Mach speed-of-moving time frame. There are three modes, as described: Any player at any time may offer to increase such bets by use of the doubler.

The numbers on the doubler are 2, 4, 16, 32, 64, , and To double a bet, the player places "2" uppermost and says "doubling".

Then "four, then "sixteen". A player is not penalized for refusing to accept a bet or increase it. If calculus method of play is being used, a player may count number of pieces in any cell and also request count by opponent.

Thus, a player may know the exact count of each cell before making a deal. In non-calculus play, players cannot lift and count sets. Nor can opponent be asked for a count.

Once a set is lifted, it must be dealt. Players must master the techniques of "sight" counting splitting and measuring or rearranging the order of the pieces to ascertain the numbers.

All such covert methods of counting are allowed. See first capture contract. The set so "empowered" or "Mached-up" must be dealt immediately.

This procedure introduces what are called "Power Plays. Capture or kill must result from the deal. In non-vectorial games the "endgame" begins when all special pieces are out of play or when no cell contains 2 pieces.

The value piece so converted is called a "convertible. All three methods may be used. Mached-moves--time is usually restricted to seconds; Mached-games, as per matrix, are restricted to 1.

The descriptive annotation system of the invention is to be used to record all moves and outcomes in the game. The total score, again, is the sum of values accumulated plus Mach bonus earned.

TV game shows, classroom exercises, and casino gaming variants are as prescribed for special situations. Because of the wide range of games, variations and embodiments, implicit in the various aspects of the invention, it is not practical to state all the rules and modifications.

Each game has its own particularized set of rules derived from the detailed specifications stated hereintofore. These rules are, in the main, comparatively easy to learn, unlike the complicated rules for Go, Chess, Bridge and other classics.

Thus, anyone with the ability to make simple logical decisions--from a child of to a mathematician or computer scientist--can play most of the games of the invention within an hour or so.

This ease of learning the fundamental of play, however, is deceptive. For although the basic ways to play are easily grasped, it is far more difficult to master the strategies that mark play at advanced or professional levels.

Among these are various kinds of combination switch moves, power plays, and speed plays which only come from long practice and study.

In general, the strategic aspects of most forms of the game relate to the following considerations:. A few words regarding cheating: All attempts to cheat, if discovered, are subject to fine as stipulated by the rules of play for the game or variation See Fines.

Hence, the advice to all players of Machcala games is "Caveat Dealer. Let both dealer and non-dealer beware. Smuggling--illegally "easing" or "nudging" a chip from one cell to an adjacent cell;.

Illegal switch--initiating switch from own side in non-vectorial variation or repeating switch drop during course of same deal.

The Big Spill or Earthquake: This is the ultimate cheat and is usually done when scorecards are not used. The player fakes an accident or illness and spills all the pieces.

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